2022 Edition

Family Foster Care and Kinship Care (CA-FKC) 20: Resource Family Use of Physical Interventions

Resource parents who use physical interventions are trained and supported by the organization to deploy them in a manner that ensures safety and well-being when positive behaviour support and de-escalation measures have proven ineffective in crisis situations.


Physical interventions do not include actions in response to age- or development-related behaviours demonstrated by young children such as physically holding a three-year-old who tries to run into the street.
NA The organization does not permit resource families to use physical interventions.




Children in Family Foster Care and Kinship Care live in safe, stable, nurturing, and often temporary family settings that best provide the continuity of care to preserve relationships, promote well-being, and ensure permanency.
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Behaviour support policy
  • Behaviour support procedures
  • Table of contents for resource parent physical intervention training curriculum
  • Training curriculum
  • Documentation tracking completion of required trainings and evaluation
  • Documentation of incident reporting and review
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Resource parents
  • Review resource parent records
  • Review case records


CA-FKC 20.01

The organization’s policies and procedures:
  1. prohibit the use of locked seclusion and mechanical restraints by resource families;
  2. define which physical interventions resource families are and are not allowed to use, and under what circumstances; and
  3. outline what to do following an incident.


The policy and procedures align with the information the organization provides families in CA-ASE 2.01. Given that COA’s standards prohibit the use of locked seclusion by resource families, resource parents should never lock a child in a room. If there are concerns about the child’s safety, the resource family should consult with the case worker and behaviour support plan for alternative options.

Fundamental Practice

CA-FKC 20.02

Physical interventions are discontinued as soon as possible and are prohibited from use:
  1. by anyone other than the resource parents or other adult caregivers who have been approved by the organization;
  2. as a form of punishment or discipline;
  3. for the convenience of resource parents;
  4. in response to property damage that does not involve imminent danger to self or others; 
  5. when contraindicated in the child’s behaviour plan;
  6. for longer than 15 minutes for children aged nine and younger; and
  7. for longer than 30 minutes for children aged 10 and older.


CA-FKC 20.03

The case worker and resource family establish procedures for:
  1. how to notify the organization following each use of a physical intervention;
  2. documentation of the incident; and
  3. debriefing with the child and resource family members involved in or witness to the incident.


Debriefing should include:
  1. the physical and emotional state of everyone involved;
  2. precipitating events; and
  3. how the incident was handled and any additional supports or resources needed in order to avoid future incidents.


Organizations that provide family foster care home services only may not be involved in debriefing, but should demonstrate implementation of the standard by ensuring the resource family complies with established procedures and documenting incidents.   

Fundamental Practice

CA-FKC 20.04

Resource parents are trained on the child’s individualized behaviour support and management plan at placement, and receive annual training and evaluation on permitted physical interventions, including:
  1. when it is appropriate to use a physical intervention;
  2. proper and safe use of interventions, including time limits for use;
  3. understanding the experience of being placed in manual restraints;
  4. assessing physical and mental status, including signs of physical distress;
  5. response techniques to prevent and reduce injury;
  6. assessing when to discontinue the physical intervention; and
  7. negative effects that can result from misuse of restrictive interventions.


To ensure competency, resource parents should receive a post-test and be observed in practice. 
NA By virtue of law or contract, the organization does not train resource families.