CA-YCS Standard. Generated 12/04/2022. ©2022 Council on Accreditation.
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services Definition

Purpose

Youth Custody Services promote public safety by providing youth with a supportive, structured setting that helps them address their needs and develop the attitudes and skills needed to make responsible choices, avoid negative behaviours, and become productive, connected, and law-abiding citizens.

Definition

Youth Custody Services provide full-time staffed placement services to youth remanded or sentenced by a youth justice court. Rather than focusing on the short-term public safety that may be achieved simply by removing youth from society, CA-YCS promotes long-term public safety by encouraging provision of services and supports that can help youth avoid reoffending behaviour and become productive members of society. 

CA-YCS can be used to review both secure and non-secure programs (e.g., from programs that lock youth in their rooms, to programs that are perimeter-secure, to programs that are less restrictive).
Note: The organization's services will be reviewed and matched with the most appropriate Service Standard, regardless of the population served. When an organization operates a program where the service population includes but is not limited to youth involved with the youth justice system, it may be more appropriate to complete another Service Standard, such as Group Living Services (CA-GLS) or Residential Treatment Services (CA-RTX).

Organizations providing only remand services will complete the relevant practice standards within the section and have the option to take NAs where noted. 


Note: Please see CA-YCS Reference List for the research that informed the development of these standards.

Note: For information about changes made in the 2020 Edition, please see the CA-YCS Crosswalk.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 1: Person-Centered Logic Model

The organization implements a program logic model that describes how resources and program activities will support the achievement of positive outcomes.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.

Logic models have been implemented for all programs and the organization has identified at least two outcomes for all its programs.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,  
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • Logic models need improvement or clarification; or
  • Logic models are still under development for some of its programs, but are completed for all high-risk programs such as protective services, foster care, residential treatment, etc.; or
  • At least one client outcome has been identified for all of its programs; or
  • All but a few staff have been trained on use of therapeutic interventions and training is scheduled for the rest; or
  • With few exceptions the policy on prohibited interventions is understood by staff, or the written policy needs minor clarification.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Logic models need significant improvement; or
  • Logic models are still under development for a majority of programs; or
  • A logic model has not been developed for one or more high-risk programs; or
  • Outcomes have not been identified for one or more programs; or
  • Several staff have not been trained on the use of therapeutic interventions; or
  • There are gaps in monitoring of therapeutic interventions, as required; or
  • There is no process for identifying risks associated with use of therapeutic interventions; or
  • Policy on prohibited interventions does not include at least one of the required elements.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Logic models have not been developed or implemented; or
  • Outcomes have not been identified for any programs; or
  • There is no written policy or procedures for the use of therapeutic interventions; or 
  • Procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
  • Documentation on therapeutic interventions is routinely incomplete and/or missing; or
  • There is evidence that clients have been harmed by inappropriate or unmonitored use of therapeutic interventions.
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • See program description completed during intake
  • Program logic model that includes a list of outcomes being measured
  • Procedures for the use of therapeutic interventions
  • Policy for prohibited interventions
  • Training curricula that addresses therapeutic interventions
  • Documentation of training and/or certification related to therapeutic interventions
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel

 

CA-YCS 1.01

A program logic model, or equivalent framework, identifies:
  1. needs the program will address;
  2. available human, financial, organizational, and community resources (i.e. inputs);
  3. program activities intended to bring about desired results;
  4. program outputs (i.e. the size and scope of services delivered); 
  5. desired outcomes (i.e. the changes you expect to see in service recipients); and
  6. expected long-term impact on the organization, community, and/or system.

Interpretation

The program logic model should demonstrate a commitment to youth rehabilitation and reintegration, and identify how the services, support, and supervision provided will meet the needs of youth while simultaneously protecting the safety of their families, the community, their peers at the program, and personnel.
Examples: Please see the W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide and COA’s PQI Tool Kit for more information on developing and using program logic models.

Examples: Information that may be used to inform the development of the program logic model includes, but is not limited to: 
  1. needs assessments and periodic reassessments; 
  2. risks assessments conducted for specific interventions; and
  3. the best available evidence of service effectiveness.

 

CA-YCS 1.02

The logic model identifies client outcomes in at least two of the following areas:
  1. change in clinical status;
  2. change in functional status;
  3. health, welfare, and safety;
  4. permanency of life situation; 
  5. quality of life; 
  6. achievement of individual service goals; and 
  7. other outcomes as appropriate to the program or service population.

Interpretation

Outcomes data should be disaggregated by race or ethnicity to identify and monitor disparities in service provision or effectiveness. 

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 1.03

The organization:
  1. ensures personnel are trained on therapeutic interventions prior to coming in contact with the service population;
  2. monitors the use and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions;
  3. identifies potential risks associated with therapeutic interventions and takes appropriate steps to minimize risk, when necessary; and
  4. discontinues an intervention immediately if it produces adverse side effects or is deemed unacceptable according to prevailing professional standards.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 1.04

Organization policy prohibits:
  1. corporal punishment;
  2. the use of aversive stimuli;
  3. interventions that involve withholding nutrition or hydration, or that inflict physical or psychological pain;
  4. the use of demeaning, shaming, or degrading language or activities;
  5. unnecessarily punitive restrictions, including cancellation of visits, phone calls, or other forms of communication as a consequence for misbehaviour;
  6. forced physical exercise to eliminate behaviours;
  7. unwarranted use of invasive procedures or activities as a consequence for misbehaviour;
  8. punitive work assignments;
  9. punishment by peers; 
  10. group punishment or discipline for individual behavior; and
  11. disciplinary room confinement (i.e. confining youth in a room by themselves as a form of punishment or discipline).
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 2: Personnel

Program personnel have the competency and support needed to provide services and meet the needs of youth.

Interpretation

Competency can be demonstrated through education, training, or experience. Support can be provided through supervision or other learning activities to improve understanding or skill development in specific areas.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,  
  • With some exceptions, staff (direct service providers, supervisors, and program managers) possess the required qualifications, including education, experience, training, skills, temperament, etc., but the integrity of the service is not compromised; or
  • Supervisors provide additional support and oversight, as needed, to the few staff without the listed qualifications; or 
  • Most staff who do not meet educational requirements are seeking to obtain them; or 
  • With few exceptions, staff have received required training, including applicable specialized training; or
  • Training curricula are not fully developed or lack depth; or
  • Training documentation is consistently maintained and kept up-to-date with some exceptions; or
  • A substantial number of supervisors meet the requirements of the standard, and the organization provides training and/or consultation to improve competencies when needed; or
  • With few exceptions, caseload sizes are consistently maintained as required by the standards or as required by internal policy when caseload has not been set by a standard; or
  • Workloads are such that staff can effectively accomplish their assigned tasks and provide quality services and are adjusted as necessary; or
  • Specialized services are obtained as required by the standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.  Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • A significant number of staff (direct service providers, supervisors, and program managers) do not possess the required qualifications, including education, experience, training, skills, temperament, etc.; and as a result, the integrity of the service may be compromised; or
  • Job descriptions typically do not reflect the requirements of the standards, and/or hiring practices do not document efforts to hire staff with required qualifications when vacancies occur; or 
  • Supervisors do not typically provide additional support and oversight to staff without the listed qualifications; or
  • A significant number of staff have not received required training, including applicable specialized training; or
  • Training documentation is poorly maintained; or
  • A significant number of supervisors do not meet the requirements of the standard, and the organization makes little effort to provide training and/or consultation to improve competencies; or
  • There are numerous instances where caseload sizes exceed the standards' requirements or the requirements of internal policy when a caseload size is not set by the standard; or
  • Workloads are excessive, and the integrity of the service may be compromised; or 
  • Specialized staff are typically not retained as required and/or many do not possess the required qualifications; or
  • Specialized services are infrequently obtained as required by the standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • List of program personnel that includes:
    • Title
    • Name
    • Employee, volunteer, or independent contractor
    • Degree or other qualifications
    • Time in current position
  • See organizational chart submitted during application
  • Table of contents of training curricula
  • Procedures or other documentation relevant to continuity of care and case assignment
  • Sample job descriptions from across relevant job categories
  • Documentation tracking staff completion of required trainings and/or competencies
  • Training curricula
  • Caseload size requirements set by policy, regulation, or contract, when applicable
  • Documentation of current caseload size per worker
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
  • Review personnel files

 

CA-YCS 2.01

Personnel providing youth care and supervision are qualified by at least:
  1. two years of college in a social or human service field; or
  2. a high school degree or equivalent and at least two years’ experience working with youth.

 

CA-YCS 2.02

Case managers are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in a social or human service field; or 
  2. a bachelor’s degree in a social or human service field and experience working with youth.

 

CA-YCS 2.03

Supervisors are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in a social or human service field; or
  2. a bachelor's degree in a social or human service field and at least two years' experience working with youth.

 

CA-YCS 2.04

All direct service personnel are trained on, or demonstrate competency in:
  1. understanding youth development;
  2. assessing risks and safety;
  3. recognizing and responding to needs, including needs related to health, mental health, trauma, and substance use;
  4. suicide prevention and response;
  5. appropriate disciplinary techniques;
  6. providing services in a culturally competent manner that considers gender and gender identity, ethnic heritage, sexual orientation, developmental level, disability, and other relevant characteristics;
  7. protocols for responding to service recipients who run away; 
  8. understanding the importance of rehabilitation and reintegration;
  9. understanding the definitions of human trafficking (both labor and sex trafficking) and sexual exploitation, and identifying potential victims; and
  10. understanding the different organizations, agencies, and systems likely to serve or encounter youth involved with the youth justice system.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 2.05

There is at least one person on duty at each program site any time the program is in operation that has received first aid and age-appropriate CPR training in the previous two years that included an in-person, hands-on CPR skills assessment conducted by a certified CPR instructor.

 

CA-YCS 2.06

The organization maintains service continuity by:
  1. assigning a worker at intake or early in the contact;
  2. avoiding the arbitrary or indiscriminate reassignment of direct service personnel; and
  3. using a team approach to ensure a comprehensive, integrated approach to service delivery and supervision.

 

CA-YCS 2.07

Employee workloads support the achievement of youth outcomes and are regularly reviewed.
Examples: Factors that may be considered when determining employee workloads include, but are not limited to:
  1. the qualifications, competencies, and experience of personnel, including the level of supervision needed;
  2. case complexity and status, including the intensity of youths’ risks and needs;
  3. the work and time required to accomplish assigned tasks and job responsibilities;
  4. whether services are provided by multiple professionals or team members; and
  5. service volume.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 3: Intake and Assessment

The organization’s intake and assessment practices ensure that youth receive prompt and responsive access to appropriate services.

Interpretation

It is likely that youth will have been screened and assessed elsewhere before arriving at the organization. However, the organization should still take steps to further evaluate youth after referral. At minimum, the organization should review the results of previous screenings and assessments to ensure they meet COA’s standards, and conduct additional assessments if those done previously are insufficient.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • In a few rare instances, urgent needs were not prioritized; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Culturally responsive assessments are the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Urgent needs are often not prioritized; or 
  • Services are frequently not initiated in a timely manner; or
  • Applicants are not receiving referrals, as appropriate; or 
  • Assessment and reassessment timeframes are often missed; or
  • Assessments are sometimes not sufficiently individualized; 
  • Culturally responsive assessments are not the norm, and this is not being addressed in supervision or training; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent; or
  • Intake or assessment is done by another organization or referral source and no documentation and/or summary of required information is present in case record. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • There are no written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.  
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Screening and intake procedures
  • Assessment procedures
  • Copy of assessment tool(s)
  • Evidence of collaboration with relevant parties
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 3.01

To promote safety and support timely initiation of services, the organization:
  1. implements prompt, systematic, and responsive screening practices that facilitate the identification of urgent risks and needs related to health, mental health, and safety, including suicidality, substance use, medication needs, and emergency medical conditions;
  2. conducts screenings within 24 hours of admission;
  3. does not leave youth unsupervised until they have been screened;
  4. promptly provides or arranges for specialized assessments when initial screenings reveal urgent risks and needs;
  5. determines whether youth are appropriate for the program; and
  6. notifies referral sources if youth cannot be served, or cannot be served promptly.

 

CA-YCS 3.02

Youth participate in an individualized, trauma-informed, culturally and linguistically responsive assessment that is:
  1. completed within established timeframes;
  2. updated as needed based on youths’ risks and needs; 
  3. focused on information pertinent for meeting service objectives; and
  4. supplemented with information provided by the referral source, collaborating providers, and/or family members, when appropriate.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
Note: Timeframes for conducting health and mental health assessments are specified in CA-YCS 7.01 and CA-YCS 8.01.

 

CA-YCS 3.03

Assessments are conducted in a standardized manner using valid and reliable tools if available, and address risks, needs, and strengths related to:
  1. health;
  2. mental health;
  3. substance use;
  4. education;
  5. vocation;
  6. social skills and behaviour; and
  7. family functioning and dynamics.

Interpretation

Organizations that do not have the resources to comprehensively assess all youth in all of the listed areas should conduct systematic service need screenings to determine when youth are in need of more in-depth assessments. However, this screening for ongoing service needs should be distinct from the emergent risk screening described in CA-YCS 3.01. Special attention should be paid to any concerns identified in previous screenings and assessments and further evaluation should be conducted if necessary.

Interpretation

Personnel that conduct assessments should be aware of the indicators of a potential trafficking victim, including, but not limited to, evidence of mental, physical, or sexual abuse; physical exhaustion; working long hours; living with employer or many people in confined area; unclear family relationships; heightened sense of fear or distrust of authority; presence of older male boyfriend or pimp; loyalty or positive feelings towards an abuser; inability or fear of making eye contact; chronic running away or homelessness; possession of excess amounts of cash or hotel keys; and inability to provide a local address or information about parents. Several tools are available to help identify a potential victim of trafficking and determine next steps toward an appropriate course of treatment. Examples of these tools include, but are not limited to, the Rapid Screening Tool for Child Trafficking and the Comprehensive Screening and Safety Tool for Child Trafficking.

Interpretation

The Assessment Matrix - Private, Public, Canadian, Network determines which level of assessment is required for COA’s Service Sections. The assessment elements of the Matrix can be tailored according to the needs of specific individuals or service design.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 

CA-YCS 3.04

The organization collaborates with relevant parties,such as the probation officer, the court, or another party responsible for youth justice, to encourage placement of youth into programs that:
  1. address their risks and needs in the least restrictive environment necessary; and
  2. are close to their families and communities, to the extent possible.

Interpretation

Although the organization may not control referral and placement decisions, it should take steps to encourage appropriate placement decisions, to the extent possible. This will likely occur on a macro-level and address placements and referrals generally, but may also occur in relation to individual cases.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 

CA-YCS 3.05

Organizations that provide remand services collaborate with relevant parties, such as the probation officer, the court, or another party responsible for youth justice, to:
  1. encourage placement of youth into the least restrictive environment necessary;
  2. promote a comprehensive, coordinated approach to serving youth; and
  3. arrange for the delivery of needed services the organization does not provide, to the extent possible and appropriate.
NA The organization does not provide remand services.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 4: Service Planning and Monitoring

Each youth participates in the development and ongoing review of a service plan that is the basis for delivery of appropriate services, support, and supervision.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • In a few instances, client or staff signatures are missing and/or not dated; or
  • With few exceptions, staff work with persons served, when appropriate, to help them receive needed support, access services, mediate barriers, etc.; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • In several instances, client or staff signatures are missing and/or not dated; or
  • Quarterly reviews are not being done consistently; or
  • Level of care for some clients is clearly inappropriate; or
  • Service planning is often done without full client participation; or
  • Appropriate family involvement is not documented; or  
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing; or
  • Individual staff members work with persons served, when appropriate, to help them receive needed support, access services, mediate barriers, etc., but this is the exception.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.  
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Service planning and monitoring procedures
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 4.01

An assessment-based service plan is developed in a timely manner with the full participation of youth, and their family when possible and appropriate, and includes:
  1. goals, desired outcomes, and timeframes for achieving them;
  2. treatment, services, and supports to be provided, and by whom;
  3. level of supervision needed; 
  4. procedures for expedited service planning when crisis or urgent need is identified; and
  5. the signature of the youth and a parent or legal guardian.

 

CA-YCS 4.02

During service planning the organization explains:
  1. how youth and their progress will be monitored;
  2. any special terms or conditions, including conditions ordered by the court or the public agency with jurisdiction over the youth;
  3. benefits to be gained if the plan is fulfilled; and
  4. possible consequences of noncompliance.

 

CA-YCS 4.03

Working in active partnership with youth, the organization collaborates with relevant organizations, agencies, and parties, as appropriate to the needs of individual youth and the nature of the services provided, to:
  1. arrange for the delivery of needed services the organization does not provide;
  2. promote a comprehensive, coordinated approach to serving youth;
  3. ensure that youth receive appropriate advocacy support;
  4. mediate barriers to services within the service delivery system; and
  5. identify and develop opportunities for youth to become involved with or contribute to the community, when possible and appropriate.
Examples: Relevant organizations, agencies, and parties include those involved with youth both during and prior to their placement at the organization, including: other professionals providing services to youth in residential care (e.g., education, health, mental health, or substance use treatment providers); representatives of the public agency responsible for youth justice; court and legal personnel; law enforcement; child welfare agencies; organizations and agencies that may have been involved with youth prior to custody (e.g., education, health, mental health, or substance use treatment providers); and community organizations, including parks and recreation services, libraries, cultural institutions, local businesses, faith-based institutions, and other youth-serving providers. 

 

CA-YCS 4.04

The worker and a supervisor, or a team of relevant personnel, review the case quarterly, or more frequently depending on youths’ risks and needs and their anticipated length of stay, to assess:
  1. service plan implementation;
  2. progress toward achieving service goals and desired outcomes; and
  3. the continuing appropriateness of service goals.

Interpretation

When experienced workers are conducting reviews of their own cases, the worker’s supervisor must review a sample of the worker’s evaluations as per the requirements of the standard.

 

CA-YCS 4.05

The worker and youth, and the youth’s family when possible and appropriate:
  1. review progress toward achievement of service goals; and 
  2. sign revisions to goals and plans.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 5: Family Connections and Involvement

The youth, family, and organization work together to maintain an optimal level of family involvement during custody, and develop positive connections to support youth after release.

Interpretation

COA recognizes that involving families can be difficult, especially if youth are placed outside of their communities and far from their families. However, organizations should still strive to involve families to the extent possible, unless family contact is contraindicated. If family contact is contraindicated and the youth resides with someone other than a family member, it may be appropriate to involve that person instead.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures for involving and serving youths' families
  • Resource and referral list
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 5.01

Youth and their family members are informed of the organization’s policies and procedures regarding visits and phone calls, and encouraged to maintain regular contact.

 

CA-YCS 5.02

Families are encouraged to participate in services for youth, to the extent possible and appropriate.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 

CA-YCS 5.03

To strengthen the family’s ability to support and supervise youth, the organization helps family members:
  1. meet any unmet service needs;
  2. maintain and strengthen family relationships;
  3. prevent, manage, and resolve family conflicts;
  4. identify strengths that can help them meet future challenges; and
  5. prepare for the youth’s return to the family, when appropriate.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
Examples: The organization may help the family by, for example, providing family counseling, or linking family members with needed resources. Although family members may receive services at the facility, it may also be appropriate to provide or arrange for the delivery of services in the family’s community, especially when the family lives far from the facility. Some of this work may be done by an aftercare case manager, in the context of planning for reentry.

 

CA-YCS 5.04

The organization minimizes barriers to family involvement by:
  1. including family members in scheduling decisions;
  2. allowing participation through teleconferencing;
  3. assisting with transportation, accommodations, and childcare, as needed and to the extent possible;
  4. helping personnel develop and maintain positive relationships with family members; and
  5. providing an environment conducive to family visits and activities.
Examples: Personnel can develop positive relationships with family members and encourage their involvement by demonstrating: 
  1. sensitivity to the willingness of the family to be engaged;
  2. respect for family members’ autonomy and confidentiality;
  3. flexibility;
  4. persistence; and
  5. a non-threatening manner.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 6: Service Culture

The service culture and daily living experiences support personal growth, rehabilitation, and positive behaviour.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures regarding visits, phone calls, and mail
  • Procedures for obtaining clearance to participate in athletic activities
  • Program rules and expectations
  • Daily schedules for the previous six months
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records
  • Observe program site and operations

 

CA-YCS 6.01

The organization maintains a culture that encourages positive, respectful, and supportive interactions between:
  1. youth and personnel; and
  2. youth and their peers.
Examples: The organization can establish an appropriate culture by, for example, ensuring personnel model pro-social behaviour and attitudes in daily interactions, and encouraging youth to do the same. This approach can also help to prevent bullying and other unsafe, negative, or anti-social peer interactions.
Note: The training and activities addressed in CA-YCS 11 will support the development of the positive, pro-social culture described in this standard.

 

CA-YCS 6.02

The organization maintains an accurate and readily-accessible schedule of services, and youth spend their days engaged in meaningful programming and activities.

 

CA-YCS 6.03

Treatment, services, and activities are appropriate for and sensitive to youths’ age, developmental level, language, disability, gender and gender identity, culture, ethnic heritage, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and past experiences of trauma.

 

CA-YCS 6.04

Youth have opportunities to participate in activities appropriate to their needs, skills, and interests, including:
  1. sports and athletic activities;
  2. cultural enrichment activities;
  3. social activities; and
  4. religious services.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 6.05

The organization evaluates youth for their ability to participate in athletic activities and obtains:
  1. a medical records release; or
  2. a signed document from a qualified medical professional stating that a youth is physically capable of participating.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 6.06

Youth have the right to:
  1. receive visits;
  2. make telephone calls; and
  3. send and receive mail.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 6.07

The organization allows for privacy in visits, phone calls, and correspondence to the extent possible and appropriate, and youth are informed of any limits on privacy.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 7: Health Services

Youth receive health services and guidance that promote good health and well-being.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures governing the provision of health services
  • Menus for the previous six months
  • Health education curricula and/or materials
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Verify employment of qualified medical practitioner either directly or via contract
  • Review case records

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 7.01

A qualified medical practitioner conducts:
  1. a health examination within seven days of admission; and
  2. a dental screening within seven days of admission, and a dental examination within 60 days of admission.

Interpretation

If the organization obtains a health record showing that the youth recently received a dental examination, it may not be necessary to conduct another examination within 60 days of admission. In those cases, the organization should ensure that the examination is conducted within six months of the date the last exam was completed (e.g., if the youth had an exam two months before admission, the next exam should occur within four months after admission). Dental screenings should still occur according to the timeframes referenced in the standard.
Note: Regarding element (b), the organization will receive a rating of 2 if it: (1) conducts screenings to identify any urgent dental needs, and ensures the follow-up services needed to address these needs are provided, (2) ensures youth have access to services if dental issues arise after the screening, and (3) ensures that all youth receive a dental examination within six months of admission, with appropriate follow-up thereafter.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 7.02

Youth receive services needed to address any health-related issues identified during the assessment and have access to ongoing health care, including sick call, by a qualified medical practitioner.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 7.03

In case of emergency, a physician or other qualified medical practitioner assumes 24-hour on-call medical responsibility.

Interpretation

It is permissible to use a local medical facility for emergency services, provided the organization has a written agreement with the facility.

 

CA-YCS 7.04

Health records include a written summary of the youth’s known medical history, including immunizations, operations, illnesses, prior reactions to medications, and allergies, and copies are provided to youth or their legal guardians upon request.

 

CA-YCS 7.05

To promote physical health and development of healthful habits, youth are provided with nutritious meals and snacks, and engaged in adequate exercise.

 

CA-YCS 7.06

To promote their ability to maintain positive health practices, youth receive appropriate support and education regarding:
  1. proper nutrition and exercise;
  2. personal hygiene;
  3. substance use and smoking;
  4. sexual development;
  5. safe and healthy relationships;
  6. prevention and treatment of diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases;
  7. HIV/AIDS prevention; and
  8. pregnancy prevention and responsible parenting.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 7.07

Pregnant youth are provided or linked with specialized services that include, as appropriate:
  1. pregnancy counselling;
  2. prenatal health care;
  3. genetic risk identification and counselling services;
  4. fetal alcohol spectrum disorder screening;
  5. labour and delivery services;
  6. postpartum care;
  7. pediatric care, including well-baby visits and immunizations; and
  8. health insurance programs for their children.
NA The organization does not serve pregnant youth.

 

CA-YCS 7.08

Pregnant youth are educated about the following prenatal health topics:
  1. fetal growth and development;
  2. the importance of prenatal care;
  3. nutrition and proper weight gain;
  4. appropriate exercise;
  5. medication use during pregnancy;
  6. effects of tobacco and substance use on fetal development;
  7. what to expect during labour and delivery; and
  8. benefits of breastfeeding.

Interpretation

These topics may be addressed by qualified medical personnel in the context of the prenatal health care referenced in CA-YCS 7.07.
NA The organization does not serve pregnant youth.

NA The organization provides only remand services.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 8: Mental Health Services

Youth with mental health conditions receive the appropriate level and intensity of treatment needed to promote rehabilitation.
NA Services are provided via contract, when needed.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures governing the provision of mental health services
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Verify employment of qualified mental health professional either directly or via contract
  • Review case records

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 8.01

A mental health assessment is conducted within 14 days of admission, and youth with mental health conditions receive diagnoses based on standardized diagnostic tools.

Interpretation

Some organizations may conduct systematic service need screenings to determine when youth are in need of more in-depth assessments. When this is the case these service need screenings should occur within 7-14 days, and further evaluation should be conducted if necessary.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 

CA-YCS 8.02

Interventions are appropriate to youths’ needs, and based on evidence or clinical practice guidelines, where they exist.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 8.03

Treatment services are provided by qualified mental health professionals.

Interpretation

If other personnel provide some aspects of service, they must be trained and supervised by qualified mental health professionals.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 8.04

When youth receive medications for emotional or behavioural conditions, medication use is:
  1. consistent with the youth’s assessed needs and service plan;
  2. authorized and managed by a board-eligible psychiatrist or another qualified health practitioner; and
  3. monitored for efficacy and side effects.

Interpretation

It is permissible under the standard to use a consulting psychiatrist or a community mental health center for psychiatric consultation, provided that the organization has a formal agreement.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 8.05

In case of emergency, youth have access to mental health services 24 hours a day.

Interpretation

It is permissible to use a local mental health facility for emergency services, provided the organization has a written agreement with the facility.

 

CA-YCS 8.06

When youth have experienced trauma, the organization provides specialized services and trauma-informed care.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 8.07

To promote the safety of youth at risk of suicide, personnel:
  1. recognize when youth are thinking about suicide;
  2. monitor suicidal youth at a frequency consistent with level of risk;
  3. respond promptly and appropriately to youth who attempt suicide; and
  4. continually supervise youth who attempt suicide until they are assessed by qualified medical and mental health personnel.

 

CA-YCS 8.08

Youth diagnosed as having co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions receive integrated treatment either directly or through active involvement with a cooperating service provider.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 9: Services for Substance Use Conditions

Youth with substance use conditions receive treatment that meets their needs.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

NA Services are provided via contract, when needed.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures governing the provision of services for substance use conditions
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Verify employment of qualified health professional either directly or via contract
  • Review case records

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 9.01

When a youth’s assessment indicates the presence of a substance use condition, the organization determines and arranges for an appropriate level and intensity of care and treatment.
Note: As referenced in CA-YCS 8.08, youth diagnosed as having co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions should receive integrated treatment either directly or through active involvement with a cooperating service provider.

 

CA-YCS 9.02

Interventions are based on evidence or clinical practice guidelines, where they exist, and are appropriate for youth.

 

CA-YCS 9.03

Youth are helped to:
  1. identify situations that prompt substance use; and
  2. develop healthier ways of responding to those situations.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 9.04

Medical needs are addressed directly or through an established referral arrangement.
Examples: Needed medical services may include: medical detoxification, medication monitoring and management, physical examinations or other physical health services, laboratory testing and toxicology services, and other diagnostic procedures.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 9.05

Mental health or community-based professionals with experience, training, and competence in engaging, diagnosing, and treating alcohol and other drug problems, are responsible for the medical aspects of substance use or dependency treatment, including:
  1. making decisions about the appropriate level and intensity of care and treatment;
  2. prescribing and/or supervising medication, including appropriate monitoring and administration of pharmacotherapy for youth with co-occurring conditions; and
  3. providing or reviewing diagnostic, toxicological, and other health related examinations.

 

CA-YCS 9.06

Youth are engaged in treatment for a sufficient length of time to attain recovery and promote positive behavioural change.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 10: Education Services

The organization provides or arranges for youth to receive education services and supports that help them advance to the highest possible level of academic achievement.

Interpretation

Organizations that do not provide educational services on-site should coordinate with other providers to meet the educational needs of youth. When organizations do not directly provide or arrange education services, case records should indicate that education plans are integrated into service plans and document advocacy for areas of unmet educational need.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures for developing and/or integrating education plans
  • Procedures for coordinating education services with other providers, if applicable
  • Proof of certification, accreditation, or registration, as applicable
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 10.01

Youth are enrolled in an appropriate education program either on- or off-site that is approved, certified, accredited, registered, or operated by or in conjunction with the local school district.

 

CA-YCS 10.02

A comprehensive, coordinated education plan is developed for each youth, and integrated into the service plan.

Interpretation

If the organization does not participate in the development of the education plan it is still responsible for integrating the education plan into the service plan.

When youth are eligible for special education services, individualized education programs (IEPs) should be developed to address youths’ needs.

 

CA-YCS 10.03

The educational program incorporates effective instructional practices, quality curriculum design, and educational tools and supports for diverse learning needs.

 

CA-YCS 10.04

The organization provides or arranges, as needed:
  1. tutoring;
  2. preparation for a high school equivalency diploma;
  3. college preparation;
  4. parent-teacher meetings; and
  5. advocacy and support.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 11: Development of Social and Independent Living Skills

Youth are engaged in programming and activities that help them acquire and strengthen the social and independent living skills needed to become responsible, connected, and law-abiding members of their communities.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
Examples: Cognitive behavioural interventions and interpersonal skills training, along with opportunities to use skills in productive and valued activities, are examples of promising ways to address youths’ risks and needs and help them develop the competencies they need to succeed. 
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Table of contents of program curricula
  • Program curricula
  • Daily schedules for previous six months
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records
  • Observe program operations

 

CA-YCS 11.01

Youth are helped to understand the impact of past actions, and develop the social-emotional skills needed to:
  1. solve problems, resolve conflicts, and make responsible decisions;
  2. control impulses and manage anger; and
  3. interact appropriately with others.

 

CA-YCS 11.02

Youth have opportunities to practice and demonstrate their social-emotional skills:
  1. in daily interactions at the program; and
  2. outside the facility, when possible and appropriate.
Examples: Opportunities to practice and demonstrate skills outside the facility may include, but are not limited to, community service projects, vocational placements, and visits to the family or home community, as permitted by legislative provisions. 

 

CA-YCS 11.03

Youth are helped to develop age-appropriate life skills that will support positive functioning at home and in the community after custody.
Examples: Relevant skills may include, but are not limited to: identifying networks of support; time management; accessing and using community resources; pursuing educational and occupational opportunities; household management; budgeting and money management; and accessing available financial assistance.

 

CA-YCS 11.04

Pregnant and parenting youth are helped to develop skills and knowledge related to:
  1. basic caregiving routines;
  2. child growth and development;
  3. meeting children’s health and emotional needs;
  4. environmental safety and injury prevention;
  5. parent-child interactions and bonding;
  6. age-appropriate behavioural expectations and appropriate discipline; and
  7. family planning.
NA The organization does not serve pregnant or parenting youth.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 12: Workforce Development Services

Youth are helped to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to find and keep jobs, and achieve long-term economic self-sufficiency.

Interpretation

When the organization serves youth of different ages, it may not be appropriate to engage younger youth in workforce development services.
NA The organization serves only younger youth for whom workforce development services are not appropriate.

NA The organization provides only remand services.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Table of contents of program curricula
  • Procedures regarding community-based work experience programs
  • Policy that prohibits exploitation of youth in employment-related training or jobs
  • Program curricula
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 12.01

Youth are helped to improve skills related to the job search, including resume writing, completing job applications, and preparing for interviews.

 

CA-YCS 12.02

To promote job retention and advancement, workforce readiness training addresses:
  1. making decisions in the workplace;
  2. working on a team;
  3. communicating effectively with others;
  4. working with diverse groups of people;
  5. using computers; and
  6. managing finances.

 

CA-YCS 12.03

Youth are engaged in occupational training programs and opportunities that are:
  1. relevant to jobs existing in the areas where youth will reside after leaving custody; and
  2. appropriate to youths’ employment-related histories, skills, and interests, to the extent possible and appropriate.

 

CA-YCS 12.04

The organization is knowledgeable about labor market conditions and courses are modified, as necessary, to ensure that training programs meet the needs of potential employers and are appropriate to the skill level of youth.

 

CA-YCS 12.05

When youth have opportunities to participate in comunity-based work experience programs, the organization follows up with both employers and youth to assess the appropriateness of placements and address any emerging issues.
NA Youth do not participate in community-based work experience programs.

 

CA-YCS 12.06

Policy prohibits exploitation of youth in employment-related training or gainful employment.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 13: Living and Service Environment

Youth reside and receive services in safe, appropriate settings that meet their basic needs.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
No Self-Study Evidence
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Observe program site

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 13.01

The organization meets youths’ basic needs by providing:
  1. rooms that are large enough to allow for comfortable movement during in-room activities;
  2. appropriate sleeping accommodations, including a clean, covered mattress, a pillow, and sufficient clean linens and blankets;
  3. sufficient access to facilities and supplies for toileting, bathing, and personal hygiene; and
  4. clean and appropriate clothing.

 

CA-YCS 13.02

Sufficient and appropriate space, materials, and furnishings are available for:
  1. dining;
  2. exercise;
  3. on-site services, including treatment, education, and other programming;
  4. recreation and leisure;
  5. visits with family members;
  6. meetings with attorneys and other professionals;
  7. administrative support functions, food preparation, housekeeping, laundry, maintenance, and storage, including storage of personal items youth are not permitted to keep in their living space; and
  8. meeting the needs of on-duty personnel, including private sleeping accommodations for personnel who sleep at the facility, if applicable.

 

CA-YCS 13.03

The living and service environments are:
  1. homelike and non-institutional, to the extent possible and appropriate; and
  2. sensitive to and supportive of youth regardless of their age, developmental level, language, disability, gender and gender identity, culture, ethnic heritage, religion, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation.
Examples: Organizations may strive to make the environment homelike and non-institutional by, for example, allowing youth to personalize their sleeping areas and contribute to decisions about how to make living areas comfortable and reflective of youths’ interests and diversity.

 

CA-YCS 13.04

The organization allows for privacy in bathrooms and sleeping areas, to the extent possible and appropriate.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 14: Maintaining Safety and Security

The organization maintains a safe, secure environment where youth, personnel, and the public are protected from harm.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Procedures for making housing assignments
  • Procedures for conducting searches
  • Youth/personnel supervision ratios
  • Policy regarding weapons
  • Procedures for maintaining safety while youth are off-site and/or interacting with the public
  • Procedures for preventing and responding to missing and runaway youth
  • Procedures for documenting, reviewing, and reporting noncompliance
  • Procedures for ensuring safety and meeting needs when youth are locked in their rooms
  • Documentation of youth/personnel supervision ratios for the previous six months
  • Personnel coverage schedules for the previous six months
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records
  • Observe program site

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.01

To promote safety within the facility, the organization considers youths’ age, size, gender and gender identity, vulnerability to victimization, offense history, and ability to adjust to a group when making housing assignments.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.02

When it is necessary to search youth, their rooms, or their property, authorized personnel do so according to procedures that:
  1. define when there is reasonable cause to conduct a search;
  2. minimize the invasiveness of the search;
  3. respect youths’ dignity; and
  4. establish a process and timetable for administrative review.

Interpretation

Organizations should conduct more invasive searches only when there is reason to do so, and should demonstrate that these searches are: (1) conducted by qualified staff, and (2) accompanied by an increased level of administrative review.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.03

The organization provides sufficient supervision to ensure the safety of youth, personnel, and the public at all times and:
  1. personnel-to-youth supervision ratios are based on youths’ risks and needs, and generally do not exceed 1:8 during the day, and 1:16 at night; 
  2. at least two staff members are on-duty at all times;
  3. same-gender personnel are available to provide supervision and services, as needed;
  4. on-duty personnel are awake at all times; 
  5. additional personnel are available in case of emergency; and
  6. supervision ratios are adjusted accordingly when youth participate in activities away from the program site or interact with the public.
Examples: When youth participate in activities away from the program site or interact with the public, it may be advisable to have higher ratios of personnel to youth than are necessary for daily activities at the program site.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.04

Organization policy prohibits personnel, youth, and visitors from bringing weapons into the facility.

Interpretation

If organizational policy allows armed law enforcement officers to enter the organization’s facilities, the organization should explain: (1) under what circumstances this practice is permitted, and (2) how safety is ensured while the armed officers are on site.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.05

When youth have opportunities to leave the facility or interact with the public, the organization maintains safety by:
  1. defining when youth are eligible for the opportunity; and
  2. evaluating youth for eligibility and appropriateness.
NA Youth do not have opportunities to leave the facility or interact with the public.
Examples: Opportunities may include, but are not limited to: home visits, community service projects, community-based work experience programs, meetings with mentors, and trial visits to community programs.

 

CA-YCS 14.06

The organization establishes procedures for preventing and responding to missing and runaway youth that address:
  1. creating an environment that provides a sense of safety, support, and community;
  2. identifying risks or triggers that may indicate likeliness to run away from programs;
  3. communication and reporting to relevant staff, authorities, and parents or legal guardians; and
  4. welcoming, screening, and debriefing when youth return to the program.

 

CA-YCS 14.07

The organization appropriately and consistently documents, reviews, and reports incidents of youth noncompliance in accordance with any requirements specified by the court or public agency with jurisdiction over youth.

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.08

Organizations that lock youth in their rooms for routine purposes:
  1. utilize this practice to maintain safety, order, and security, rather than for purposes of discipline, compliance, or convenience, or to compensate for staff shortages;
  2. do not lock youth in their rooms for excessively long time periods;
  3. ensure that using this practice does not detract from the organization’s ability to create a culture that promotes respect, healing, and positive behaviour; and
  4. ensure that using this practice does not prevent youth from spending most of their waking hours engaged in meaningful and developmentally-appropriate activities.
Interpretation Some organizations lock youth in their rooms for routine purposes to maintain safety, security, and order (e.g., during sleep, or for other defined, short periods of time). Although this practice does restrict freedom of movement, it differs from the types of restrictive interventions addressed in the Behaviour Support and Management Standards (CA-BSM) insofar as it is utilized on a routine, ongoing basis, rather than in response to a specific incident that poses an imminent threat to the safety of the youth or others.
NA The organization does not lock youth in their rooms for routine purposes (e.g., during sleep periods).

 
Fundamental Practice

CA-YCS 14.09

To ensure youth safety in both emergency and non-emergency situations, organizations that lock youth in their rooms for routine purposes:
  1. monitor youth at least every 15 minutes while they are locked in their rooms, and monitor youth continually while they are locked in their rooms if they are at risk for suicide or self-harm;
  2. ensure that rooms are free from safety risks and hazards;
  3. provide access to food, water, and bathroom facilities, as needed;
  4. establish safety protocols and procedures that include plans for the immediate release of youth from locked areas in case of emergency; and
  5. train personnel and youth on emergency evacuation procedures.

Interpretation

If the organization uses a video camera to monitor youth, it should demonstrate that personnel are able to respond immediately if necessary. When youth are at risk for suicide or self-harm, video cameras should never take the place of continuous face-to-face monitoring.
NA The organization does not lock youth in their rooms for routine purposes (e.g., during sleep periods).
Note: As referenced in CA-RPM 1, the organization should conform to all applicable safety codes, including fire codes.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 15: Planning for Reentry and Aftercare

The organization and youth work together to plan for transition and prepare for life after custody.

Interpretation

If another party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is responsible for providing aftercare, they may play a role in implementing the practices addressed in this section. However, the organization is still expected to partner with that party to facilitate effective reentry planning, and ensure that the standards are implemented.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
Note: Although “Planning for Reentry and Aftercare” is a specific core concept standard, it is important to note that reentry preparation is not actually an entirely separate practice. In contrast, the services provided throughout custody should be designed to help youth avoid reoffending behaviour and become productive members of society.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Reentry planning procedures
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 15.01

To ensure an orderly transition from custody: 
  1. reentry planning begins soon after youth arrive at the facility; and
  2. youth, their family members, and relevant personnel are involved in developing plans for transition and aftercare.

Interpretation

If another organization or party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is primarily responsible for providing aftercare, they should be involved in the planning process as soon as possible.

 

CA-YCS 15.02

Aftercare plans are linked to service plans and specify how to address risks, needs, and strengths in areas relevant to reentry, including, as appropriate:
  1. living arrangements;
  2. family relationships;
  3. peer groups and support networks;
  4. recreational activities;
  5. health;
  6. mental health;
  7. substance use conditions;
  8. finding and enrolling in appropriate education services, such as high school or GED programs, vocational training programs, special education services, and colleges or universities; and
  9. obtaining legitimate employment.

Interpretation

Post-custody living arrangements may vary based on a youth’s age, developmental level, and family situation. Although youth will often return to their families, the organization should have a system in place to ensure this is safe and appropriate. To facilitate a more gradual transition, some organizations may transfer youth to less-restrictive facilities, such as group homes, before they transition to longer-term living arrangements.

 

CA-YCS 15.03

The organization works with resources, services, and supports specified in the aftercare plan to:
  1. ensure that youth are admitted to appropriate programs before release from custody;
  2. prepare service providers and others in the community for youths’ arrival; and
  3. build positive connections to support youth after release.

 

CA-YCS 15.04

The organization provides youth with advance notice of the cessation of any benefits that may occur at release, and helps youth:
  1. register for healthcare as needed; and 
  2. sign up for other appropriate benefits, when available.

 

CA-YCS 15.05

Youth are helped to obtain or compile any documents they may need after release, including, as appropriate to youths’ ages and needs:
  1. an identification card;
  2. a social insurance number;
  3. a resume;
  4. a driver’s license, when the ability to drive is an appropriate goal;
  5. medical records and documentation;
  6. a birth certificate;
  7. documentation of immigration, citizenship, or naturalization, if applicable;
  8. death certificates when parents are deceased;
  9. a list of known relatives, with relationships, addresses, telephone numbers, and permissions for contacting involved parties; and
  10. educational records.
 
2022 Edition

Youth Custody Services (CA-YCS) 16: Case Closing and Aftercare

Case closing is an orderly process, and follow-up assistance helps youth avoid re-offending.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,   
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • In a few instances, the organization terminated services inappropriately; or  
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent; or
  • A formal case closing evaluation is not consistently provided to the public authority per the requirements of the standard.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Services are frequently terminated inappropriately; or  
  • Aftercare planning is not initiated early enough to ensure orderly transitions; or
  • A formal case closing summary and assessment is seldom provided to the public authority per the requirements of the standard; or  
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing. 
Self-Study EvidenceOn-Site EvidenceOn-Site Activities
  • Case closing procedures
  • Follow-up procedures
No On-Site Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

CA-YCS 16.01

A written summary of the case record is provided to the probation officer or another party with post-release jurisdiction over the youth, and includes an assessment of:
  1. any unmet needs;
  2. the degree to which goals were or were not achieved; and
  3. reasons for success or failure.

 

CA-YCS 16.02

Upon case closing, the organization notifies any collaborating service providers, as appropriate.

 

CA-YCS 16.03

As a continuing resource for information, crisis management, and support, the organization provides each youth with contact information for the organization or the aftercare provider, as appropriate.
NA The organization provides only remand services.

 

CA-YCS 16.04

Youth are helped to transition to services specified in the aftercare plan, and follow-up occurs at specified intervals after release to:
  1. supervise youth;
  2. ensure that youth access needed services and supports; and
  3. monitor youths’ progress and well-being.

Interpretation

When another party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is responsible for providing transition assistance and follow-up, the organization may implement this standard by documenting that is the case in the case record.
NA The organization provides only remand services.
Note: COA recognizes that this one practice standard does not reflect the complexity of what should occur upon reentry, and the importance of aftercare should not be minimized. However, because follow-up services are typically provided by a separate organization or agency, aftercare is not addressed more comprehensively in this service section.
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