2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs Introduction

Purpose

Sound administration and management increase program quality and sustainability; promote financial accountability and viability; support transparency and openness; and reduce risk, loss, and liability exposure.

Introduction

COA’s Administration and Management standards for Child and Youth Development Programs address several areas relevant to effective program management and administration, including leadership; oversight; planning; ethical practice; financial management; risk prevention and management; and continuous quality improvement. Implementing these standards supports a program’s ability to provide quality programming for children and youth.

Note: When another person, department, or entity is responsible for implementing some of the practices addressed in these standards, the program should be prepared to provide evidence that this is the case. For example, if a school principal or superintendent is responsible for the quarterly risk review addressed in CYD-AM 6.03, the program should provide documentation to demonstrate this. If the program implements policies or procedures (e.g., conflict of interest policies and procedures) that have been developed and adopted by another body (e.g., the school board, Military Service headquarters, or the governing body of the organization of which the program is a part), the program does not need to develop its own separate policies and procedures. Instead, it should provide evidence that it is implementing the policies and procedures it has been given to enforce.


Note: Please see the CYD-AM Reference List for the research that informed the development of these standards.


Note: For information about changes made in the 2021 Edition, please see the CYD-AM Crosswalk and the CYD-HR Crosswalk.  


2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 1: Program Guidance and Oversight

Appropriate leadership, guidance, and oversight support effective program operations.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • List of advisory group members, with brief bios and contact information
  • Contact information for person (or members of entity) responsible for oversight
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Administrator (or representative of entity) responsible for oversight, if applicable
    4. Member(s) of advisory group

 

CYD 1.01

The program is guided by a leader who provides the direction, structure, and inspiration needed to maintain a positive culture and support effective program operations.
Interpretation: While job titles may vary, this type of direction, structure, and inspiration will typically be provided by the Program Director or Administrator. 

 

CYD 1.02

Program personnel work with, and provide reports or updates to, the person or entity responsible for providing oversight. 
Interpretation: Different types of programs will report to different authorities. For example, while some programs may report to a governing body, others may be responsible to another type of review board (e.g., a military review board, school board, or school management committee), or to an individual (e.g., a principal or superintendent).  

The person or entity providing oversight may have a variety of responsibilities, such as reviewing the development and implementation of the long-term plan; assessing program quality and fidelity to the program’s model; reviewing risk identification and management processes; providing financial oversight; anticipating the need for and developing resources; enhancing and promoting community-program relationships; appointing, collaborating with, and evaluating the program director; and developing and adopting policy. The program should be prepared to explain how the person or entity responsible for providing oversight and guidance supports the achievement of the program’s mission and goals. 
NA The program is a privately-held and owner-operated for-profit, and is not responsible to another person or entity.

 

CYD 1.03

The program receives guidance from an advisory group that: 
  1. includes relevant stakeholders, such as children and youth, parents, and school or community representatives;
  2. receives support and information from the program; and
  3. provides input about community needs, desired outcomes, programming, and the community’s perception of the program.
Interpretation: Different types of programs will receive guidance from different types of groups.  For example, while one program might convene a parent advisory group that is specific to the program, another program might receive guidance from a standing group affiliated with a larger entity, such as the advisory committee of a community school, the school Parent Teacher Association (PTA), or the governing body of the organization running the program. 
 
As noted in CYD-AM 2, the advisory group will typically play a role in the development of the program’s logic model (or equivalent framework) and long term plan.  In order for the group to function well there should be clear and transparent protocols regarding member recruitment and selection, and the program should: (1) establish guidelines regarding how frequently and at what times the group should meet (e.g., three times annually, including before developing goals for the upcoming year); (2) actively consider and respond to the group’s input, feedback, and recommendations; and (3) have reasonable expectations about what the group can accomplish within the parameters of its mission and available resources.
Note: Programs are also expected to involve and collaborate with stakeholders in a variety of additional ways.   For example, expectations regarding stakeholder involvement in program planning and continuous quality improvement are covered in CYD-AM 2 and CYD-AM 8, and additional standards addressing the involvement and input of children and youth, families, and communities are included in OST and ECE.
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 2: Mission and Long-Term Planning

The program’s mission and goals are responsive to the needs and aspirations of the community and guide program planning, implementation, and evaluation. 
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • See program mission statement provided during application
  • Long term plan
  • Procedures (or description of process) for long term planning (CYD-AM 2.02)
  • Equity statement
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Administrator (or representative of entity) responsible for oversight, if applicable
    4. Member(s) of advisory group

 

CYD 2.01

The program’s mission:
  1. is responsive to the needs and aspirations of the community;
  2. guides the program’s administrative operations and delivery of services; and
  3. serves as a benchmark of program effectiveness.
Interpretation: Information regarding community needs and aspirations may be obtained through available data (e.g., findings from external assessments such as those conducted by the United Way, universities, or municipal planning boards), or through assessments, surveys, or focus groups conducted by the program itself.  The program’s advisory group should also provide information regarding community needs and goals, as referenced in CYD-AM 1.03.

 

CYD 2.02

Long-term program planning addresses the overall direction and sustainability of the program, and includes: 

  1. reviewing the program’s mission, values, mandates, and logic model (or equivalent framework);
  2. considering input from stakeholders including personnel, oversight and advisory entities, program participants and their families, and other community partners;
  3. considering information obtained during continuous quality improvement activities;
  4. an assessment of equity, diversity, and inclusion strategies;
  5. identifying and assessing strengths, weaknesses, and critical issues, including any changing conditions that may impact the program or community;
  6. establishing objectives that reflect the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, and critical issues, and support achievement of the goals articulated in the program’s logic model (or equivalent framework); and
  7. devising strategies for meeting objectives, including timelines, deliverables, and responsible parties.
Interpretation: Planning should include attention to areas including: financial sustainability; material resource needs; human resources, including recruitment, retention, and staff development; the overarching nature and characteristics of programming, including the type and frequency of programming; the overall climate of the program; logistical issues that may impact program participation (e.g., transportation and scheduling); and the importance of obtaining the “buy-in” of stakeholders including staff, program participants and their families, and the community. It should also take into account the planning activities addressed elsewhere in the standards, including financial planning (CYD-AM 5) and human resource planning (HR 1).
 
Timeframes for planning may vary from program to program, but should be logical.  For example, many programs will make plans annually, or for the school year or summer, as appropriate to their program cycle. When the program is part of a larger organization, agency, or network, some aspects of planning will likely be conducted in conjunction with the larger entity’s overall strategic planning process.  

 

CYD 2.03

The program develops an equity statement outlining its commitment to equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) that is shared with its stakeholders.

Interpretation: The equity statement should reflect the program’s history, connect EDI to its mission, and outline how the program demonstrates its commitment to EDI.

2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 3: Legal and Regulatory Compliance

The program has a process for annually reviewing compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws, codes, and regulations, including those related to:
  1. licensure;
  2. facilities;
  3. accessibility;
  4. health and safety;
  5. finances; and
  6. human resources.
Interpretation: In regards to element (b), programs that rent facilities should obtain relevant documentation from their landlord. If the program cannot obtain access to the required documentation from their landlord or from relevant public or private health and safety authorities, the program may also solicit a recognized expert to verify compliance with applicable laws and safety codes.
 

Currently viewing: LEGAL AND REGULATORY COMPLIANCE

VIEW THE STANDARDS

1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • A letter signed by the Program Director and, if applicable, the person/entity responsible for oversight, certifying that the program is in compliance with license requirements, laws, regulations, guidelines, and codes
  • Procedures for reviewing compliance with licensure requirements and applicable laws and regulations related to management and operations, and services delivered
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
  • Observe posted licenses, if applicable
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 4: Ethical Practices

The program engages in honest, truthful, and responsible conduct, transactions, partnerships, and relationships.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • See program's website URL and links to social media sites provided during application
  • Fundraising policy
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Administrator (or representative of entity) responsible for oversight, if applicable
    4. Member(s) of advisory group
    5. Children, youth, families, and other stakeholders

 

CYD 4.01

The program provides the public with clear, timely, and accurate information about the it’s mission,  activities, service recipients, and finances.
 
Interpretation: Donors, volunteers, public officials, and family members of program participants are among those for whom access to information should be assured.
 
When the program is a not-for-profit, the federal Form 990 filing may be used as a source of information. COA recognizes that for-profit and military programs are not required to disclose financial information to the public. 

 

CYD 4.02

A program that raises funds through grants, contracts, or individual solicitation from the general public: 
  1. accurately describes the purpose for which solicitations are being made;
  2. spends funds for the purposes they were solicited, with the exception of reasonable costs for administration of the fundraising program;
  3. maintains accounting segregation for restricted funds; and
  4. respects donor confidentiality requests, and ensures that such donors’ names are not published in publicly available documents.
Interpretation: COA recognizes that programs will take direction from their grants or contracts where those grants or contracts have requirements that conflict with the expectations of the standard (e.g., if a grant or contract does not permit any portion of the funds awarded to be spent on the administration of the fundraising program).
 
NA The program does not raise funds through grants, contracts, or individual solicitation from the general public.

 

CYD 4.03

Conflict of interest policies ensure that contracts and business arrangements serve the program’s and program participants’ best interests, not private interests.

 

CYD 4.04

Conflict of interest policies require that personnel, members of the entity providing oversight, members of the group providing guidance, and community partners who have a financial interest in the program’s operations, assets, business transactions, or leases: 
  1. disclose this information; and
  2. do not participate in any discussion or vote taken with respect to such interests.
Interpretation: If the program is part of an organization that has a governing body, governing body members who are part of the organization’s audit committee cannot receive compensation for professional services they provide as consultants.

Interpretation: Element (b) does not apply to owners in private, for-profit organizations. 
 

 

CYD 4.05

Personnel know and follow an appropriate code of ethics in making decisions and fulfilling their professional responsibilities.
Interpretation: The National AfterSchool Association (NAA) developed a Code of Ethics that outlines the ethical responsibilities after school professionals have towards children, families, and communities. For more information about accessing the NAA Code of Ethics, please see the CYD-AM Reference List.
 
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 5: Financial Planning and Management

Positive financial outcomes are achieved through sound financial planning, management, and oversight.
 
Interpretation: Please note that the person or entity responsible for providing oversight may be responsible for implementing some of the practices addressed in this core concept.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Program budgets for the current fiscal year
  • List of revenue sources with percentage of each to total budget
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel

 

CYD 5.01

An annual operating budget:
  1. includes revenues and expenses;
  2. supports the program’s mission and goals, and facilitates implementation of the activities outlined in the program’s logic model (or equivalent framework);
  3. serves as a plan for managing the program’s financial resources; 
  4. is based upon performance improvement and outcomes data; and
  5. is developed through a team approach that includes input from personnel with knowledge of the program’s priorities and operations.
Interpretation: Expenses may include, but are not limited to: payroll; staff development; program materials and curricula; equipment; food; transportation; rent; and utilities. 

 

CYD 5.02

Accounting records are kept up to date and balanced on a monthly basis.
 
Interpretation: Programs may demonstrate that accounting records are kept up-to-date and balanced monthly through: up-to-date posting of cash receipts and disbursements; timely reconciliation of the bank statement and subsidiary records to the general ledger; and monthly updating of the general ledger. The bank reconciliation should ideally be reviewed by a person other than the person who performs the reconciliation, when possible.

 

CYD 5.03

The program conducts financial analyses and produces financial reports that enable program leaders to evaluate the program’s financial status and plan for the future.
Interpretation: It may be relevant to produce a range of financial reports, from financial statements (i.e., balance sheets and income statements) to useful forecasts (e.g., cash flow projections that predict whether revenues will cover expenses at a particular point in time, which is especially important when programs lack significant cash reserves and are thus at risk for a cash shortage). The finalized budget can also serve as a tool that enables the program to monitor its activities and evaluate its financial situation throughout the year. For example, conducting a budget-to-actual comparison can prompt a program to make needed adjustments if actual expenses exceed those budgeted.

Reports should be produced, and evaluations should be conducted, on a regular and ongoing basis.  Evaluation of financial status should consider financial capacities and resources (including assets and revenues), resources needed to operate the program, financial risks and anticipated problems, and financial planning and funding alternatives.

 

CYD 5.04

The program pursues stable, predictable sources of revenue through diversification and balance in funding streams consistent with the its mission and programs.
Interpretation: Programs can meet the intent of the standard if they can demonstrate that they are actively pursuing stable and predictable sources of revenue, even if they have not yet achieved that goal.

 

CYD 5.05

The program establishes protocols for management and oversight of the financial system that include mechanisms for:
  1. implementation and management by appropriately trained and qualified individuals;
  2. management review by more than one person, when possible;
  3. review and approval by program leadership and entities responsible for oversight;
  4. assurance that management directives are carried out;
  5. prevention of error, mismanagement, or fraud;
  6. safeguarding and verification of assets; and
  7. segregation of duties to the extent possible.
Interpretation: In the case of privately-held and owner-operated for-profits, the program’s owners will be responsible for the review and approval referenced in element (c) of the standard.
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 6: Risk Prevention and Management

The program identifies areas of risk and reduces potential loss and liability.
Interpretation: Please note that the person or entity responsible for providing oversight may be responsible for implementing some of the practices addressed in this core concept.  

While not specifically required by CYD-AM 6, programs may choose to support their risk management activities by developing a risk management plan that: (1) is proactive and anticipates potential risks, (2) includes strategies for managing risks, (3) assigns responsibility for key tasks, and (4) includes measurable goals for reducing potential risks.
Note: Many of the activities and practices addressed elsewhere in the standards, from file maintenance to emergency response preparedness, also contribute to effective risk prevention and management.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Procedures for conducting annual assessments of potential risks (CYD-AM 6.01)
  • Procedures for investigation and review of critical incidents (CYD-AM 6.02)
  • Procedures for quarterly review of incidents, accidents, and grievances (CYD-AM 6.03)
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director

 

CYD 6.01

The program annually assesses areas of potential risk, including:     
  1. compliance with legal requirements, including federal, state, and local laws and regulations; 
  2. technology and information management;
  3. disruption of operations due to a public health emergency;
  4. insurance and liability; 
  5. health and safety; 
  6. human resources practices; 
  7. contracting practices and compliance; 
  8. client rights and confidentiality issues; 
  9. financial risks; 
  10. public relations, branding, and reputation; and
  11. conflicts of interest.
Interpretation: Although all areas of potential risk should be assessed at least annually, the assessments do not need to be conducted all together, in one sitting. When the program identifies issues that will involve ongoing effort or monitoring, improvement or corrective action plans should be developed and implemented. These plans should include goals, action steps, needed resources, timetables, and expectations for monitoring and review.

 
Fundamental Practice

CYD 6.02

The program conducts a review of each incident, serious occurrence, accident, and grievance that involves the threat of or actual harm, serious injury, or death, and review procedures: 
  1. require that the investigation be initiated within 24 hours of the incident and/or accident being reported and establish timeframes for review;
  2. require solicitation of statements from all involved individuals;
  3. ensure an independent review;
  4. require timely implementation and documentation of all actions taken;
  5. address ongoing monitoring of actions taken, to determine their effectiveness; and
  6. address applicable reporting requirements.
Interpretation: Root cause analysis can be a useful approach to reviewing serious incidents and accidents. Root cause analysis is a term used to describe a variety of techniques used to identify the cause of a problem and determine how to prevent that problem from recurring.

 
Fundamental Practice

CYD 6.03

The program conducts and documents a quarterly review of incidents, accidents, and grievances related to: 
  1. serious illnesses, serious injuries, and deaths;
  2. facility safety;
  3. administering or storing medications, if applicable;
  4. situations where a person was determined to be a danger to himself/herself or others; and
  5. activities or other practices that involve risk.
Interpretation: When the program identifies issues that will involve ongoing effort or monitoring, improvement or corrective action plans should be developed and implemented. These plans should include goals, action steps, needed resources, timetables, and expectations for monitoring and review.
Example: The program can examine critical incident data that disaggregates incidents by race and ethnicity to identify trends in service equity. 

 
Fundamental Practice

CYD 6.04

The program is adequately insured, and possesses a copy of its insurance coverage certificate.
Interpretation: Relevant types of insurance may include, but are not limited to: general liability; automobile liability; workers’ compensation; disability; fire and theft; medical; indemnification; professional liability; officer’s or director’s liability; property and casualty; malpractice; and bonding or other forms of employee theft insurance for those who sign checks, handle cash or contributions, or manage funds.
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 7: Information Management and Security

The program appropriately maintains and protects information related to program planning, operations, and evaluation.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel
  • Observe system for maintaining and storing files, records, and other information

 

CYD 7.01

The program has an information management system that supports and facilitates program planning, operations, and evaluation.
Interpretation: The information management system should enable the program to collect, maintain, and access all types of information, from the rate of personnel turnover, to financial statistics, to data about program participants (e.g., attendance records, grades, test scores, or ongoing assessments of progress). COA does not require programs to use computer-based systems, but the use of appropriate technology may help to promote efficiency.

 

CYD 7.02

The program protects confidential and other sensitive information from theft, unauthorized use or disclosure, damage, or destruction by: 
  1. limiting access to authorized personnel on a need-to-know basis;
  2. maintaining paper records in a secure location when not in use by authorized staff;  
  3. using firewalls, anti-virus and related software, and other appropriate safeguards; and
  4. backing up electronic data, with copies maintained off premises when possible.
Interpretation: This standard addresses the security of all types of applicable records, including files of children and youth and administrative, financial, and personnel records. The program should develop a system for storing files and records that best fits its needs and circumstances, and should implement the elements of the standard as appropriate to those needs and circumstances.  For example, a program that does not maintain electronic data will not implement element (d) of the standard.
 
Regarding element (b) of the standard, relevant ways to ensure that paper records are stored in a secure location may include, but are not limited to: locking file cabinets; using a locked file room with limited access or a gatekeeper system whereby one person or a few people can unlock the file storage area or access the files themselves; or establishing a system with a keypad or keys where only authorized individuals are given the keypad code or copies of the keys. Programs may also consider storing files above the ground floor if the program is located in an area prone to flooding, and using fireproof file cabinets, metal file cabinets, or sprinkler systems to protect against fire.

 
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 8: Continuous Quality Improvement

The program develops and implements a system for promoting continuous quality improvement (CQI).
Note: Information obtained during continuous quality improvement activities should also inform long-term planning, as addressed in CYD-AM 2.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • CQI plan that outlines the program's system/process, and what is being measured, including:
    1. outcomes
    2. outputs
    3. data sources
    4. indicators
    5. targets
  • See CQI outcomes documentation found in the Person-Centered Logic Model Core Concept in the Service Standards.
  • Procedures for collecting, cleaning, reviewing, and aggregating data (CYD-AM 8.03)
  • Procedures for reviewing and taking action based on findings (CYD-AM 8.04)
  • Procedures for sharing and reviewing reports and findings with staff and stakeholders (CYD-AM 8.05)
  • Most recent data summary document or report provided to internal and external stakeholders
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program Director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Children, youth, families, and other stakeholders
  • Observe system for collecting, aggregating, analyzing, and maintaining data

 

CYD 8.01

The program’s leadership fosters a culture of excellence and continual improvement by: 
  1. regularly considering how the program is using data to promote improvement and goal achievement;
  2. emphasizing the importance of continuous quality improvement in regular meetings and conversations;
  3. training staff at all levels to understand how CQI functions within the program;
  4. encouraging and supporting staff involvement in CQI activities; 
  5. involving other key stakeholders, including children, youth, families, and community partners, in the program’s CQI process; and
  6. allocating sufficient resources to sustain the program’s CQI system.
Interpretation: The process of implementing COA’s Standards is an additional way to foster a culture of excellence and continual improvement.

 

CYD 8.02

In an effort to monitor progress toward goals and desired outcomes, the program identifies: 
  1. key goals, outcomes, and outputs that merit ongoing monitoring;
  2. measurement indicators; 
  3. performance targets; and 
  4. data sources, including data collection tools or instruments for each identified output and outcome.
Interpretation: Programs should strive to measure factors related to: the impact of services and supports on children and youth; the quality and quantity of services and supports provided; satisfaction with services; and the management/administration of the program. For example, programs might seek to measure factors ranging from staff preparedness, to program climate, to activity quality, to attendance level, to parent and child satisfaction, to the implementation of disciplinary practices, to the accuracy and completeness of files, to the development or academic progress of children and youth, to equity in relation to staffing (e.g., considering whether the cultural characteristics of personnel are generally reflective of the children and families served).

Interpretation: Program goals, outcomes, and outputs must be identified in the logic model submitted in the Client-Centered Logic Model Core Concept in the Service Standard.
 

 

CYD 8.03

The program collects relevant data on an ongoing basis and cleans, aggregates, and analyzes it in order to: 

  1. ensure data integrity, including accuracy, completeness, timeliness, uniqueness, and outliers;
  2. protect personal identifiable information (PII) in data reports;
  3. track identified measures; and
  4. identify patterns and trends.

Interpretation: Programs may collect different types of data and use a variety of different collection methods, from surveys, to observations, to focus groups. In some cases a program may need to partner with other organizations and agencies to gain access to relevant data. For example, an after school program striving to improve academic outcomes might establish an agreement with the school district in order to obtain data such as grades or test scores. When it is necessary to use a tool to collect data (e.g., a survey or observation tool) programs should ideally use standardized and/or evidence-based tools when such tools are available and appropriate. 


Timeframes for data collection will vary based upon data type. For example, while a program may administer satisfaction surveys on an annual basis, attendance data will be collected on an ongoing basis. When a program establishes an agreement with another entity in order to access relevant information (e.g., grades or test scores), the agreement may specify that the information will be provided at specific intervals (e.g., on a quarterly basis).


Interpretation: “Cleaning data” means checking for errors and inconsistencies in order to improve the quality of data prior to aggregating and analyzing it. Common things to check for include accuracy, completeness, timeliness, uniqueness, and outliers. 


Data aggregation and analysis can occur at a frequency determined by the program based on how the data will be used, but should occur no less than annually. Programs should ideally compare data both over time. 


Interpretation:  Organizations should disaggregate data to identify patterns of disparity or inequity that can be masked by aggregate data reporting. Common characteristics used to disaggregate data include:

  1. race and ethnicity/country of origin;
  2. generation status;
  3. immigration/refugee status;
  4. age group;
  5. sexual orientation; and
  6. gender/gender identity



Interpretation: The aggregation of data reduces the risk of disclosing PII in most instances; however, risk of disclosure still exists particularly when data is being disaggregated and unique or easily observable characteristics might allow someone to be identified in the data set. As such, data collection and reporting procedures should include mechanisms for avoiding such disclosure such as data suppression, rounding, reporting in ranges rather than exact counts, combining sub-groups into larger groups, etc.

Examples: Programs can disaggregate data to identify patterns of disparity or inequity that can be masked by aggregate data reporting. Common characteristics used to disaggregate data include: 

  1. race and ethnicity/country of origin; 
  2. immigrant/refugee status; 
  3. age group; 
  4. sexual orientation; and 
  5. gender/gender identity. 
Note: An information management system, as addressed in CYD-AM 7, can help to facilitate the maintenance and aggregation of data.

 

CYD 8.04

The program:
  1. reviews CQI findings and stakeholder feedback and takes action, when indicated; and
  2. monitors the effectiveness of actions taken and modifies implemented improvements, as needed.
Examples: Programs can use CQI findings and feedback to:
  1. improve services;
  2. eliminate or reduce identified problems;
  3. replicate good practice;
  4. recognize and motivate staff; and
  5. improve systems, processes, policies, and procedures.
Examples: Information generated by the CQI system can be used to:
  1. monitor progress toward achieving its mission and strategic and annual goals;
  2. meet funder requirements; and
  3. promote the program and its services throughout the community.
Examples: Corrective Action Plans or Improvement Plans can be implemented when issues have been identified that will involve ongoing effort and monitoring.
 

 

CYD 8.05

Reports of CQI findings are:
  1. shared and discussed with advisory group members, staff, and stakeholders; and
  2. distributed in timeframes and formats that facilitate review, analysis, interpretation, and timely corrective action.
Interpretation: The summary report should address: key CQI activities or issues that have been resolved; key CQI activities or issues that are ongoing or require continued monitoring; and CQI priorities and goals for the coming year. It should typically be shared with stakeholders including, but not limited to: program personnel; program participants and their families; parties responsible for providing guidance and oversight; funders; and community partners.
2023 Edition

Administration & Management for Child and Youth Development Programs (CYD) 9: Medication Control and Administration

The program ensures safe, uniform medication control and administration.
NA The program does not administer or store medication.
1
The program’s practices fully meet the standard, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Medication management procedures
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Relevant personnel
  • Review files of children and youth
  • Facility observation

 

CYD 9.01

Personnel directly involved in medication control and administration receive training and demonstrate competence in medication control and administration, and knowledge of applicable legal requirements.

 
Fundamental Practice

CYD 9.02

Protocols and controls governing the proper administration and storage of medication include:
  1. locked, supervised storage with access limited to authorized personnel and in accordance with law, regulation, and manufacturer’s instruction;
  2. maintaining medication in original and child resistant packaging, and labeling with the name of the child or youth, medication name, dosage, prescribing physician name, and number or code identifying the written order;  
  3. appropriate disposal of expired or unused medication, syringes, medical waste, or medication prescribed to former persons served;
  4. a record of who received medications, what medications were administered, and when and by whom medications were administered; and
  5. protocols for the administration of over-the-counter medications.
Interpretation: When it may be necessary to quickly access a prescribed emergency medication (e.g., epinephrine) in a potentially life-threatening situation, a program may demonstrate implementation of element (a) by storing this medication in a location that is secure (i.e., continually supervised) but not locked during program hours, and then locking the medication when the program is closed. Similarly, when a youth is permitted to carry and self-administer prescribed emergency medication in accordance with a personal medication management plan and state law/regulation on file at the program, this practice and evidence will meet the intent of the standard.

 
Fundamental Practice

CYD 9.03

When adverse effects of medication are observed, personnel discuss such concerns with the child’s or youth’s parent or legal guardian.
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