2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services Definition

Purpose

Juvenile Justice Day Services promote public safety and reduce the need for out-of-home placements by allowing youth to reside in their communities while they address problems and develop the attitudes and skills needed to make responsible choices, avoid negative behaviors, and become productive, connected, and law-abiding members of their communities.

Definition

Juvenile Justice Day Services provide structured, non-residential services and supervision to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. Youth are typically required to report to the program daily, for a specified length of time. Services may be provided: (1) when youth are adjudicated delinquent and ordered to attend the program; (2) as aftercare following participation in a more intensive residential program; (3) as an alternative to secure detention; and/or (4) as diversion from more formal involvement in the juvenile justice system.

Note:Some organizations provide less intensive day programs (for example, reporting centers) that are not designed to include service planning. These organizations have the option to complete only: JJD 1, JJD 2, JJD 3, JJD 5, JJD 6, JJD 7, JJD 9, and JJD 11.

When an organization providing JJD offers treatment for youth with mental health or substance use conditions, the organization should also complete COA’s standards for Mental Health and/or Substance Use Services (MHSU).


The organization's services will be reviewed and matched with the most appropriate Service Standard, regardless of the population served. When an organization operates a program where the service population includes but is not limited to youth involved with the juvenile justice system, it may be more appropriate to complete another Service Standard, such as Day Treatment Services (DTX) or Out-of-School Time Services (OST).


Note:Please see JJD Reference List for the research that informed the development of these standards.


Note:For information about changes made in the 2020 Edition, please see the JJD Crosswalk.


2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 1: Person-Centered Logic Model

The organization implements a program logic model that describes how resources and program activities will support the achievement of positive outcomes.
NotePlease see the Logic Model Template for additional guidance on this standard.  
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.

Logic models have been implemented for all programs and the organization has identified at least two outcomes for all its programs.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,  
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • Logic models need improvement or clarification; or
  • Logic models are still under development for some of its programs, but are completed for all high-risk programs such as protective services, foster care, residential treatment, etc.; or
  • At least one client outcome has been identified for all of its programs; or
  • All but a few staff have been trained on use of therapeutic interventions and training is scheduled for the rest; or
  • With few exceptions the policy on prohibited interventions is understood by staff, or the written policy needs minor clarification.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Logic models need significant improvement; or
  • Logic models are still under development for a majority of programs; or
  • A logic model has not been developed for one or more high-risk programs; or
  • Outcomes have not been identified for one or more programs; or
  • Several staff have not been trained on the use of therapeutic interventions; or
  • There are gaps in monitoring of therapeutic interventions, as required; or
  • There is no process for identifying risks associated with use of therapeutic interventions; or
  • Policy on prohibited interventions does not include at least one of the required elements.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Logic models have not been developed or implemented; or
  • Outcomes have not been identified for any programs; or
  • There is no written policy or procedures for the use of therapeutic interventions; or 
  • Procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
  • Documentation on therapeutic interventions is routinely incomplete and/or missing; or
  • There is evidence that clients have been harmed by inappropriate or unmonitored use of therapeutic interventions.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • See program description completed during intake
  • Program logic model that includes a list of outcomes being measured
  • Policy for prohibited interventions
  • Procedures for the use of therapeutic interventions
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel

 

JJD 1.01

A program logic model, or equivalent framework, identifies:
  1. needs the program will address;
  2. available human, financial, organizational, and community resources (i.e. inputs);
  3. program activities intended to bring about desired results;
  4. program outputs (i.e. the size and scope of services delivered); 
  5. desired outcomes (i.e. the changes you expect to see in service recipients); and
  6. expected long-term impact on the organization, community, and/or system.
Interpretation: The program logic model should demonstrate a commitment to youth rehabilitation and identify how the services, support, and supervision provided will meet the needs of youth while simultaneously protecting the safety of their families, the community, their peers at the program, and personnel.
Examples: Please see the W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide and COA’s PQI Tool Kit for more information on developing and using program logic models.

Examples: Information that may be used to inform the development of the program logic model includes, but is not limited to: 
  1. needs assessments and periodic reassessments; 
  2. risks assessments conducted for specific interventions; and
  3. the best available evidence of service effectiveness.

 

JJD 1.02

The logic model identifies client outcomes in at least two of the following areas:
  1. change in clinical status;
  2. change in functional status;
  3. health, welfare, and safety;
  4. permanency of life situation; 
  5. quality of life; 
  6. achievement of individual service goals; and 
  7. other outcomes as appropriate to the program or service population.

Interpretation: Outcomes data should be disaggregated to identify patterns of disparity or inequity that can be masked by aggregate data reporting. See PQI 5.02 for more information on disaggregating data to track and monitor identified outcomes. 


 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 1.03

The organization:
  1. ensures personnel are trained on therapeutic interventions prior to coming in contact with the service population;
  2. monitors the use and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions;
  3. identifies potential risks associated with therapeutic interventions and takes appropriate steps to minimize risk, when necessary; and
  4. discontinues an intervention immediately if it produces adverse side effects or is deemed unacceptable according to prevailing professional standards.
NA The organization does not use therapeutic interventions.

Note: Therapeutic Interventions do not include restrictive behavior management techniques, which are addressed in Behavior Support and Management (BSM ). Please see the glossary definition for Therapeutic Interventions for additional guidance on this standard.


 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 1.04

Organization policy prohibits:
  1. corporal punishment;
  2. the use of aversive stimuli;
  3. interventions that involve withholding nutrition or hydration, or that inflict physical or psychological pain;
  4. the use of demeaning, shaming, or degrading language or activities;
  5. unnecessarily punitive restrictions;
  6. forced physical exercise to eliminate behaviors;
  7. unwarranted use of invasive procedures or activities as a disciplinary action;
  8. punitive work assignments;
  9. punishment by peers; and
  10. group punishment or discipline for individual behavior.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 2: Personnel

Program personnel have the competency and support needed to provide services and meet the needs of youth.
Interpretation: Competency can be demonstrated through education, training, or experience. Support can be provided through supervision or other learning activities to improve understanding or skill development in specific areas.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,  
  • With some exceptions, staff (direct service providers, supervisors, and program managers) possess the required qualifications, including education, experience, training, skills, temperament, etc., but the integrity of the service is not compromised; or
  • Supervisors provide additional support and oversight, as needed, to the few staff without the listed qualifications; or 
  • Most staff who do not meet educational requirements are seeking to obtain them; or 
  • With few exceptions, staff have received required training, including applicable specialized training; or
  • Training curricula are not fully developed or lack depth; or
  • Training documentation is consistently maintained and kept up-to-date with some exceptions; or
  • A substantial number of supervisors meet the requirements of the standard, and the organization provides training and/or consultation to improve competencies when needed; or
  • With few exceptions, caseload sizes are consistently maintained as required by the standards or as required by internal policy when caseload has not been set by a standard; or
  • Workloads are such that staff can effectively accomplish their assigned tasks and provide quality services and are adjusted as necessary; or
  • Specialized services are obtained as required by the standards.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.  Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • A significant number of staff (direct service providers, supervisors, and program managers) do not possess the required qualifications, including education, experience, training, skills, temperament, etc.; and as a result, the integrity of the service may be compromised; or
  • Job descriptions typically do not reflect the requirements of the standards, and/or hiring practices do not document efforts to hire staff with required qualifications when vacancies occur; or 
  • Supervisors do not typically provide additional support and oversight to staff without the listed qualifications; or
  • A significant number of staff have not received required training, including applicable specialized training; or
  • Training documentation is poorly maintained; or
  • A significant number of supervisors do not meet the requirements of the standard, and the organization makes little effort to provide training and/or consultation to improve competencies; or
  • There are numerous instances where caseload sizes exceed the standards' requirements or the requirements of internal policy when a caseload size is not set by the standard; or
  • Workloads are excessive, and the integrity of the service may be compromised; or 
  • Specialized staff are typically not retained as required and/or many do not possess the required qualifications; or
  • Specialized services are infrequently obtained as required by the standards.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards.
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • List of program personnel that includes:
    • Title
    • Name
    • Employee, volunteer, or independent contractor
    • Degree or other qualifications
    • Time in current position
  • See organizational chart submitted during application
  • Table of contents of training curricula
  • Procedures or other documentation relevant to continuity of care and case assignment
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
  • Review personnel files
  • Verify employment of or contract with professionals providing specialized services, if applicable

 

JJD 2.01

Personnel providing youth care and supervision are qualified by at least:
  1. two years of college in a social or human service field; or
  2. a high school degree or equivalent and at least two years of experience working with youth.

 

JJD 2.02

Case managers are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in a social or human service field; or
  2. a bachelor’s degree in a social or human service field and experience working with youth.

 

JJD 2.03

Supervisors are qualified by:
  1. an advanced degree in a social or human service field; or
  2. a bachelor's degree in a social or human service field and at least two years of experience working with youth.

 

JJD 2.04

Qualified professionals and specialists provide any needed services related to:
  1. mental health;
  2. substance use;
  3. medicine and dentistry;
  4. nursing; and
  5. education.
NA The program is not designed to provide or coordinate these services.

 

JJD 2.05

All direct service personnel are trained on, or demonstrate competency in: 
  1. understanding youth development;
  2. assessing risks and safety;
  3. recognizing and responding to needs, including needs related to health, mental health, and substance use;
  4. appropriate disciplinary techniques;
  5. providing services in a culturally competent manner that considers gender and gender identity, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, developmental level, disability, and other relevant characteristics; and
  6. understanding the different organizations, agencies, and systems likely to serve or encounter youth involved with the juvenile justice system.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 2.06

There is at least one person on duty at each program site any time the program is in operation that has received first aid and age-appropriate CPR training in the previous two years that included an in-person, hands-on CPR skills assessment conducted by a certified CPR instructor.

 

JJD 2.07

The organization maintains service continuity by:
  1. assigning a worker at intake or early in the contact;
  2. avoiding the arbitrary or indiscriminate reassignment of direct service personnel; and
  3. using a team approach to ensure a comprehensive, integrated approach to service delivery and supervision.

 

JJD 2.08

Employee workloads support the achievement of youth outcomes and are regularly reviewed.
Examples: Factors that may be considered when determining employee workloads include, but are not limited to:
  1. the qualifications, competencies, and experience of personnel, including the level of supervision needed;
  2. case complexity and status, including the intensity of youths’ risks and needs;
  3. the work and time required to accomplish assigned tasks and job responsibilities;
  4. whether services are provided by multiple professionals or team members; and
  5. service volume.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 3: Engagement and Assessment

The organization’s engagement and assessment practices ensure that youth receive prompt and responsive access to appropriate services.
Interpretation: It is likely that youth will have been assessed elsewhere before being referred to the organization. However, the organization should still take steps to further evaluate youth after referral. At minimum, the organization should review the results of previous assessments to ensure they meet COA’s standards, and conduct additional assessments if those done previously are insufficient.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • In a few rare instances, urgent needs were not prioritized; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Culturally responsive assessments are the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Urgent needs are often not prioritized; or 
  • Services are frequently not initiated in a timely manner; or
  • Applicants are not receiving referrals, as appropriate; or 
  • Assessment and reassessment timeframes are often missed; or
  • Assessments are sometimes not sufficiently individualized; 
  • Culturally responsive assessments are not the norm, and this is not being addressed in supervision or training; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent; or
  • Intake or assessment is done by another organization or referral source and no documentation and/or summary of required information is present in case record. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • There are no written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.  
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Screening and intake procedures
  • Assessment procedures
  • Copy of assessment tool(s)
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 3.01

To promote safety and support timely initiation of services, the organization responds to referrals by:
  1. contacting youth promptly, within specified timeframes;
  2. gathering identifying and emergency contact information;
  3. screening youth to identify emergency health needs and safety concerns, such as imminent danger or risk of future harm; 
  4. determining whether youth are appropriate for the program; and
  5. notifying referral sources if youth cannot be served, or cannot be served promptly.
Interpretation: When another party (such as the court) determines the date youth are to report to the program, it may not be relevant for the organization to contact youth. However, the organization should still implement the rest of the standard, and follow up if youth do not report as scheduled.

 

JJD 3.02

Youth participate in an individualized, culturally and linguistically responsive assessment that is:
  1. completed within established timeframes; 
  2. updated as needed based on youths’ risks and needs;
  3. focused on information pertinent for meeting service objectives; and
  4. supplemented with information provided by the referral source, collaborating providers, and/or family members, when appropriate.

 

JJD 3.03

Assessments are conducted in a standardized manner and address:
  1. youths’ problems and needs; 
  2. youths’ strengths and assets; and 
  3. risks youth pose to the community.

Interpretation:Organizations should assess youth in all relevant areas including social skills and behavior, physical and mental health, substance use, family, education, and vocation. Organizations that do not have the resources to comprehensively assess all youth in all relevant areas (e.g., mental health) should conduct systematic service need screenings to determine when youth are in need of more in-depth assessments. Special attention should be paid to any concerns identified in previous screenings and assessments, and further evaluation should be conducted if necessary. 


When a program is designed to provide less-intensive day services, it may be appropriate to complete a more minimal assessment.


Interpretation: The Assessment Matrix - Private, Public, Canadian, Network determines which level of assessment is required for COA’s Service Sections. The assessment elements of the Matrix can be tailored according to the needs of specific individuals or service design.


 

JJD 3.04

The organization collaborates with relevant parties, including the court and the public agency responsible for juvenile justice, to encourage placement of youth into programs that address their risks and needs in the least restrictive environment necessary.
Interpretation: Although an individual organization without statutory authority does not control referral and placement decisions, organizations should take steps to encourage the court and public agency to make appropriate placement decisions, to the extent possible. This will likely occur on a macro-level and address placements and referrals generally, but may also occur in relation to individual cases.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 4: Service Planning and Monitoring

Each youth participates in the development and ongoing review of a service plan that is the basis for delivery of appropriate services, support, and supervision.
Interpretation: When services are provided as aftercare that follows another more intensive program, these plans may sometimes be referred to as “transition plans” or “reentry plans” rather than “service plans.”
NA The organization provides less-intensive day services.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • In a few instances, client or staff signatures are missing and/or not dated; or
  • With few exceptions, staff work with persons served, when appropriate, to help them receive needed support, access services, mediate barriers, etc.; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • In several instances, client or staff signatures are missing and/or not dated; or
  • Quarterly reviews are not being done consistently; or
  • Level of care for some clients is clearly inappropriate; or
  • Service planning is often done without full client participation; or
  • Appropriate family involvement is not documented; or  
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing; or
  • Individual staff members work with persons served, when appropriate, to help them receive needed support, access services, mediate barriers, etc., but this is the exception.
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.  
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Service planning and monitoring procedures
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

JJD 4.01

An assessment-based service plan is developed in a timely manner with the full participation of the youth, and their family when possible and appropriate, and includes:
  1. goals, desired outcomes, and timeframes for achieving them;
  2. services and supports to be provided, and by whom;
  3. the level of supervision needed, including any outside contacts required; 
  4. procedures for expedited service planning when crisis or urgent need is identified; and
  5. the signature of the youth and a parent or legal guardian.
Interpretation: To promote service continuity and facilitate a successful transition, organizations providing aftercare services should strive to develop plans before youth are released from their previous placements.

 

JJD 4.02

During service planning the organization explains:
  1. how youth and their progress will be monitored;
  2. any special terms or conditions, including conditions ordered by the court or public agency with jurisdiction over the youth;
  3. benefits to be gained if the plan is fulfilled; and
  4. possible consequences of noncompliance.
Examples: Special terms or conditions can include, but are not limited to, mandated program attendance, school attendance, curfews, and drug testing.

 

JJD 4.03

Working in active partnership with youth, the organization collaborates with relevant organizations, agencies, and parties, as appropriate to the needs of individual youth and the nature of the services provided, to:
  1. arrange for the delivery of needed services the organization does not provide;
  2. promote a comprehensive, coordinated approach to serving youth;
  3. ensure that youth receive appropriate advocacy support;
  4. mediate barriers to services within the service delivery system; and
  5. identify and develop opportunities for youth to become involved with or contribute to the community, when possible and appropriate.
Examples: Relevant organizations, agencies, and parties include those involved with youth both during and prior to their placement at the organization, including: representatives of the public agency responsible for juvenile justice; court and legal personnel; law enforcement; staff at youths’ previous placements, when services are provided as aftercare following another more intensive program; child welfare agencies; schools; health care providers; mental health care providers; substance use treatment providers; and community organizations, including parks and recreation services, libraries, cultural institutions, local businesses, faith-based institutions, and other youth-serving providers.

 

JJD 4.04

The worker and a supervisor, or a team of relevant personnel, review the case quarterly, or more frequently depending on youths’ risks and needs and the anticipated duration of service, to assess:
  1. service plan implementation;
  2. progress toward achieving service goals and desired outcomes;
  3. the continuing appropriateness of service goals and timeframes; and
  4. the level of supervision needed.
Interpretation: When experienced workers are conducting reviews of their own cases, the worker’s supervisor must review a sample of the worker’s evaluations as per the requirements of the standard.

 

JJD 4.05

The worker and youth, and the youth’s family when possible and appropriate: 
  1. review progress toward achievement of goals; and 
  2. sign revisions to goals and plans.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 5: Family Involvement and Services

The organization partners with families to help them provide youth with appropriate and consistent support and supervision.
Interpretation: COA recognizes that involving families can be difficult. However, organizations should still strive to involve families to the extent possible, unless family contact is contraindicated. If family contact is contraindicated and the youth resides with someone other than a family member, it may be appropriate to involve that person instead.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Procedures for involving and serving youths' families
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

JJD 5.01

To strengthen the family’s ability to support and supervise youth, the organization helps family members:
  1. meet any unmet service needs;
  2. maintain and strengthen family relationships;
  3. prevent, manage, and resolve family conflicts; and
  4. identify strengths that can help them meet future challenges.
Examples: The organization may help the family by, for example, providing family counseling, or linking family members with needed community resources. Although family members may receive services at the organization, it may also be appropriate to provide or arrange for the delivery of services in the home or elsewhere in the community.

 

JJD 5.02

Families are involved in services for youth to the extent possible and appropriate, and the organization encourages family involvement by:
  1. including family members in scheduling decisions;
  2. allowing participation through teleconferencing;
  3. assisting with transportation and childcare, as needed and to the extent possible;
  4. helping personnel develop and maintain positive relationships with family members; and
  5. providing an environment conducive to family activities.
Examples: Personnel can develop positive relationships with family members and encourage their involvement in service delivery by demonstrating: 
  1. sensitivity to the willingness of the family to be engaged; 
  2. respect for family members’ autonomy and confidentiality;
  3. flexibility;
  4. persistence; and
  5. a non-threatening manner.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 6: Service Environment and Culture

The service environment and culture support personal growth, rehabilitation, and positive behavior.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
No Self-Study Evidence
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Observe program site and operations

 

JJD 6.01

The organization maintains a supportive culture that encourages positive, respectful, and cooperative interactions and relationships between:
  1. youth and personnel; and
  2. youth and their peers.
Examples: The organization can establish a supportive culture by ensuring personnel model pro-social behavior and attitudes in daily interactions, and encouraging youth to do the same. This approach can also help to prevent bullying and other unsafe, negative, or anti-social peer interactions.
Note: The training and activities addressed in JJD 7 will support the development of the positive, pro-social culture described in this standard.

 

JJD 6.02

The program setting is welcoming and supportive, and program space, materials, and services are appropriate for and sensitive to youths’ age, developmental level, language, disability, gender and gender identity, culture, race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and past experiences of trauma.

 

JJD 6.03

The organization maintains an accurate and readily-accessible schedule of services, and youth spend their time engaged in meaningful programming and activities.

 

JJD 6.04

Youth receive nutritious snacks or meals, as appropriate to the time of day they attend the program.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 7: Developing Life Skills and Connections

Youth are engaged in programming and activities that help them build skills, explore interests, experience a sense of self-efficacy and belonging, and contribute to the community.
Examples: Cognitive behavioral interventions and interpersonal skills training, along with opportunities to use skills in productive and valued activities, are examples of promising ways to address youths’ risks and needs and help them develop the competencies they need to succeed.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Table of contents of program curricula
  • Procedures for obtaining clearance to participate in athletic activities
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Observe program operations
  • Review case records

 

JJD 7.01

Youth are helped to understand the impact of past actions, and develop the social-emotional skills needed to:
  1. solve problems, resolve conflicts, and make responsible decisions;
  2. control impulses and manage anger; and
  3. interact appropriately with others.

 

JJD 7.02

Youth have opportunities to practice and demonstrate their social-emotional skills:
  1. in daily interactions at the program; and 
  2. in activities outside the facility, when possible and appropriate.
Examples: Opportunities to practice and demonstrate skills outside the facility may include, but are not limited to, community service projects or vocational placements.

 

JJD 7.03

Youth are helped to develop age-appropriate life skills that support positive functioning at home and in the community.
Examples: Relevant skills may include, but are not limited to: identifying networks of support; time management; accessing and using community resources; pursuing educational and occupational opportunities; household management; budgeting and money management; and accessing available financial assistance.

 

JJD 7.04

Youth have opportunities to participate in program activities appropriate to their needs, skills, and interests, including:
  1. sports and athletic activities;
  2. cultural enrichment activities;
  3. academic enrichment and support activities; and
  4. social activities.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 7.05

The organization evaluates youth for their ability to participate in athletic activities and obtains:
  1. written, signed permission slips from youths’ parents or legal guardians;
  2. a medical records release; and/or
  3. a signed document from a qualified medical professional stating that the youth is physically capable of participating.

 

JJD 7.06

In an effort to cultivate positive connections outside the program, personnel help youth identify:
  1. pro-social recreational and leisure time activities; and
  2. sources of pro-social support, such as mentors, community members, peers, siblings, or other family members.
Examples: Recreational and leisure time activities may include, but are not limited to, sports and athletic activities, cultural enrichment activities, and positive youth development clubs.

 

JJD 7.07

To promote their ability to maintain positive health practices, youth receive appropriate support and education regarding:
  1. proper nutrition and exercise;
  2. personal hygiene;
  3. substance use and smoking;
  4. sexual development;
  5. safe and healthy relationships;
  6. prevention and treatment of diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases; 
  7. HIV/AIDS prevention; and
  8. pregnancy prevention and responsible parenting.

 

JJD 7.08

Pregnant and parenting youth are helped to develop skills and knowledge related to:
  1. basic caregiving routines;
  2. child growth and development;
  3. meeting children’s health and emotional needs;
  4. environmental safety and injury prevention;
  5. parent-child interactions and bonding;
  6. age-appropriate behavioral expectations and disciplinary strategies; and
  7. pregnancy planning and the spacing of children.
NA The organization does not serve pregnant or parenting youth.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 8: Education Services

The organization provides or arranges for youth to receive education services and supports that help them catch up in school and advance to the highest possible level of academic achievement.
Interpretation: Organizations that do not provide educational services on-site should coordinate with community-based providers to meet the educational needs of youth. When organizations do not directly provide or arrange education services, case records should indicate that education plans are integrated into service plans and document advocacy for areas of unmet educational need.
NA The organization provides services in the after-school or evening hours, only.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Procedures for developing and/or integrating education plans
  • Procedures for coordinating education services with community-based providers, if applicable
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

JJD 8.01

Youth are enrolled in an appropriate education program on-site or in the community that is approved, certified, accredited, registered, or operated by or in conjuntion with the local school district.

 

JJD 8.02

A comprehensive, coordinated education plan is developed for each youth, and integrated into the service plan.
Interpretation: If the organization does not participate in the development of the education plan it is still responsible for integrating the education plan into the service plan.  

When youth are eligible for special education services, individualized education programs (IEPs) should be developed to address youths’ needs.

 

JJD 8.03

The educational program incorporates effective instructional practices, quality curriculum design, and educational tools and supports for diverse learning needs.

 

JJD 8.04

The organization provides or arranges, as needed:
  1. tutoring;
  2. preparation for a high school equivalency diploma;
  3. college preparation;
  4. parent-teacher meetings; and
  5. advocacy and support.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 9: Maintaining Safety and Security

The organization maintains a safe, secure environment where youth, personnel, and community members are protected from harm.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Youth/personnel supervision ratios
  • Procedures for maintaining safety and security both on- and off-site
  • Procedures for conducting searches
  • Policy regarding weapons
  • Procedures for documenting, reviewing, and reporting noncompliance
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records
  • Observe program site

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 9.01

The organization provides sufficient supervision to ensure the safety of youth, personnel, and the community, and:
  1. supervision ratios are established based on youths’ risks and needs;
  2. additional personnel are available in case of emergency; and
  3. supervision ratios are adjusted accordingly when youth participate in activities away from the program site.
Examples: When youth participate in activities away from the program site, it may be advisable to have higher ratios of personnel to youth than are necessary for daily activities at the program site.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 9.02

To promote the safety and security of youth, the facility, and the community, the organization:
  1. regulates entry into and exit from the facility;
  2. monitors youths’ attendance; and
  3. follows up when youth are unexpectedly absent.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 9.03

When it is necessary to search youth or their property, trained personnel do so according to procedures that:
  1. define when there is reasonable cause to conduct a search;
  2. minimize the invasiveness of the search;
  3. respect youths’ dignity; and
  4. establish a process and timetable for administrative review.
Interpretation: Organizations should conduct more invasive searches only when there is reason to do so, and should demonstrate that these searches are: (1) conducted by qualified staff, and (2) accompanied by an increased level of administrative review.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 9.04

Organization policy prohibits personnel, youth, and visitors from bringing weapons into the facility.
Interpretation: If organizational policy allows armed law enforcement officers to enter the organization’s facilities, the organization should explain: (1) under what circumstances this practice is permitted, and (2) how safety is ensured while the armed officers are on site.

 
Fundamental Practice

JJD 9.05

When youth have opportunities to participate in activities away from the program site, the organization:
  1. defines when youth are eligible for the opportunity; and
  2. evaluates youth for eligibility and appropriateness.

 

JJD 9.06

The organization appropriately and consistently documents, reviews, and reports incidents of youth noncompliance in accordance with any requirements specified by the court or public agency with jurisdiction over youth.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 10: Planning for Transition and Aftercare

The organization and youth work together to prepare for transition and plan how to live responsibly in the community after completing the program.
Interpretation: If another party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is responsible for providing aftercare, they may play a role in implementing the practices addressed in this section. However, the organization is still expected to partner with that party to facilitate effective planning and ensure that the standards are implemented.
NA The organization provides less-intensive day services.
Note: Although “Planning for Transition and Aftercare” is a specific core concept standard, it is important to note that transition preparation is not actually an entirely separate practice. In contrast, the services provided throughout program involvement should be designed to help youth avoid lives of crime and become productive members of their communities.
1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • For the most part, established timeframes are met; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Timeframes are often missed; or
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing.      
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Transition/aftercare planning procedures
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

JJD 10.01

Plans for aftercare are developed:
  1. sufficiently in advance of case closing to ensure an orderly transition; and
  2. in collaboration with youth, their family members, and relevant personnel.
Interpretation: If another organization or party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is primarily responsible for providing aftercare, they should be involved in the planning process as soon as possible.

 

JJD 10.02

Aftercare plans identify resources, supports, and services that can address risks and needs and help youth live responsibly in their communities.
Examples: Services may include both resources currently being utilized and potential resources for the future.

 

JJD 10.03

The organization takes the initiative to contact resources, services, and supports specified in the aftercare plan to:
  1. ensure that youth are admitted to appropriate programs;
  2. prepare any new service providers for youths’ arrival; and
  3. build positive connections to support youth.
2023 Edition

Juvenile Justice Day Services (JJD) 11: Case Closing and Follow-Up

Case closing is an orderly process, and follow-up assistance helps youth avoid future delinquency.

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VIEW THE STANDARDS

1
All elements or requirements outlined in the standard are evident in practice, as indicated by full implementation of the practices outlined in the Practice Standards.
2
Practices are basically sound but there is room for improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,   
  • Minor inconsistencies and not yet fully developed practices are noted; however, these do not significantly impact service quality; or
  • Procedures need strengthening; or
  • With few exceptions, procedures are understood by staff and are being used; or
  • Proper documentation is the norm and any issues with individual staff members are being addressed through performance evaluations and training; or
  • In a few instances, the organization terminated services inappropriately; or  
  • Active client participation occurs to a considerable extent; or
  • A formal case closing evaluation is not consistently provided to the public authority per the requirements of the standard.
3
Practice requires significant improvement, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards. Service quality or program functioning may be compromised; e.g.,
  • Procedures and/or case record documentation need significant strengthening; or
  • Procedures are not well-understood or used appropriately; or
  • Services are frequently terminated inappropriately; or  
  • Aftercare planning is not initiated early enough to ensure orderly transitions; or
  • A formal case closing summary and assessment is seldom provided to the public authority per the requirements of the standard; or  
  • Several client records are missing important information; or
  • Client participation is inconsistent. 
4
Implementation of the standard is minimal or there is no evidence of implementation at all, as noted in the ratings for the Practice Standards; e.g.,
  • No written procedures, or procedures are clearly inadequate or not being used; or 
  • Documentation is routinely incomplete and/or missing. 
Self-Study Evidence Site Visit Evidence On-Site Activities
  • Case closing procedures
  • Follow-up procedures
No Site Visit Evidence
  • Interviews may include:
    1. Program director
    2. Relevant personnel
    3. Youth served and their families
  • Review case records

 

JJD 11.01

A written summary of the case record is provided to the court and the public agency with jurisdiction over the youth, and includes an assessment of:
  1. any unmet needs;
  2. the degree to which goals were or were not achieved; and
  3. reasons for success or failure.

 

JJD 11.02

Upon case closing, the organization notifies any collaborating service providers, as appropriate.

 

JJD 11.03

As a continuing resource for information, crisis management, and support, the organization provides each youth with contact information for the organization or the aftercare provider, as appropriate.

 

JJD 11.04

The organization follows up with youth to monitor progress and ensure they access needed services and supports.
Interpretation: When another party (e.g., an aftercare case manager) is responsible for providing follow-up services, the organization may implement this standard by documenting that is the case in the case record.
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